Abbreviations & Definitions
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South; Summer loadline 
S & P or SANDP  Sale and purchase 
S d/k  Shelter deck 
S&P  Sale and purchase 
S+R  Signing and Releasing 
S-57/S-63  S-57/S-63 is the primary format for all type-approved ECDIS systems that meet IMO/SOLAS chart carriage requirements. 
s.G  An abbreviation of specific gravity. 
s.s. & c. or SS and C  Same sea and country coast 
S.T.C.  Said to contain 
S.THR.  Side Thruster 
S/A  Safe Arrival or Subject to Approval 
S/A or SA  South America; South Australia; South Africa; Safe Anchorage; Salvage Association 
S/D  Sight Draft or Sea Damage 
S/FA  Shipping and Forwarding Agent 
S/N  Shipping note 
S/O  Ship owner 
S/R  Signing/releasing 
S/R B/L or S+R B/L or SRBL  Signing and Releasing Bill(s) of Lading 
S/S  Service Speed or Special Survey or Steamship 
S/S/R/CMA  Stem, suppliers, receivers, charterers management 
SA  Safe Anchorage or South Atlantic or South America or South Africa or South Australia or Sociéte Anonyme 
SA/SHEX  Saturday afternoon/Sundays and holidays excepted.(Excluded) 
SABIO  Stem and Berth in order 
SAE  Stamped and addressed envelope 
SAFE Port Act  Is the Security and Accountability For Every Port Act of 2006 which is an Act of Congress in the United States that covers port security. 
Safety Case  Some countries such as Canada, Australia, Norway and the UK require a Safety Case to be developed before permission is given to develop and operate an oil field. Various safety studies are conducted and reviewed. If approved, the oil company is allowed to operate the oil or gas field providing all conditions of the Safety Case are and continue to be met. 
Sail Training Ship  A sailing vessel used to train merchant/naval seamen or youth training. 
Sailing Draft  the vertical depth below the water surface in which the vessel moves in 
Sailing Vessel  A sailing vessel of unspecified function 
SAL  Single Anchor Loading - Consists of a single or double mooring line attached to a suction anchor or pile on the seabed. A swivel stands on top of anchor. The oil flow is carried through a flexible hose up to the ship, which "weathervanes" freely around the anchor point. 
SALCON  Salvage Convention 1989, (IMO) 
SALM  Single Anchor Leg Mooring 
Salvage Ship  A vessel equipped for salvage operations 
Salvage Vessel, Naval Auxiliary  A naval auxiliary vessel fitted with salvage equipment. 
SAN  Styrene-acrylonitrile. SAN is a transparent, rigid styrenic plastic offering high chemical resistance, used mainly in the automotive, electrical and electronics industry, as well as in household applications and building products.. 
Sanction  An embargo imposed by a Government against another country. 
SAP  Single Anchor Production - Involves placing a multi-path production swivel on a seabed anchor. Can be used in most water depths and is expected to have a large potential in combination with subsea production equipment. 
Saponification Value  The saponification value is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to saponify completely one gram of the substance. It is a measure of the free and combined fatty acids present. By deducting the acid value from the saponification value, we obtain the ester value representing only the combined fatty acids in the neutral oil. The mean molecular weight of the fat can be calculated from the saponification value. The amount of glycerine in the neutral oil can be calculated from the ester value. The saponification value is measured by saponifying a known weight of an oil or fat with an excess of an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide followed by titration of the remaining alcoholic alkali with standard acid. 
SAR  Search And Rescue 
SART  Search and Rescue Transponder 
SATCOM  Satellite Communication 
SATCOMS  Sattelite communications 
SATNAV  Satellite Navigation 
SATPM  Saturday P.M 
SATPMSHEX;  Saturdays PM Sundays and holidays excluded 
SATSHEX or SSHEX  Saturdays, Sundays and holidays excluded 
SATSHINC or SSHINC  Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included 
Saturated Acids  Important components of fats and oils. The most common saturated fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, lauric and myristic. 
saturates  Hydrocarbons with no multiple bonds. Paraffins and naphthenes. 
SATV  Safe Access to Vessels Working Group 
SB  Safe berth 
SB  Safe berth or Southbound 
SB or SBS  Safe berth 
SBA  Secondary Butyl Alcohol 
SBE  Standby engine 
SBM  Single Buoy Mooring or Soy Bean Meal 
SBP  Safe berth-port 
SBR  Styrene-Butadiene Rubber. SBR is a rubber manufactured from styrene. Because of its excellent abrasion resistance, it is widely used in automobile and truck tires, as well as for carpet backing and paper coating. Other applications are in belting, flooring, wire and cable insulation, and footwear.. 
SBT  Segregated Ballast Tanks: These are tanks that are completely segregated from the cargo oil and fuel oil systems and which are permanently allocated to the carriage of ballast. Requirements for meeting the SBT criteria are detailed in MARPOL 13. 
SBT/PL  Segregated Ballast Tanks Protectively Located  
SC&S  Strapped, corded and sealed 
SCAC  Standard Carrier Alpha Code 
SCAC Code  See Owner Code. 
Scaling Temperature  The temperature, above which steel oxidizes at a high rate 
Scantling Draft  the maximum draft at which a vessel complies with the governing strength requirements of classification societies. 
SCBRA  Speed Reduction and Bunker Consumption Algorithm 
Schedule B  The Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States. 
SCM  Stern to Center Manifold 
SCNT  Suez Canal Net Tonnage 
SCOS  Submerged Crude Oil Storage - This Teekay-designed system stores crude oil underwater in an inflatable balloon-type structure made of a flexible polyester fabric, with a coating impervious to seawater and oil. 
SCP  Sub-area Contingency Plan (10 regional plans that supplement the AK Unified Plan) 
screen  Oil trading jargon for the electronic network quotes of futures market prices. Other nicknames include "the TV" and "the print." The industry discusses physical market activity and does business at levels which sound like "screen plus 25" and "85 points under the print." 
SCUBA  Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus 
Scuttlebutt  A butt was a barrel. Scuttle meant to chop a hole in something. The scuttlebutt was a water barrel with a hole cut into it so that sailors could reach in and dip out drinking water. The scuttlebutt was the place where the ship's gossip was exchanged. 
SD  Self-Discharging or Single Deck or Sight Draft or Short Delivery 
SD or SELFD or SELFDISCH  Self Discharging 
SD or SID  Single decker 
SDBC  Single Decker bulk carrier 
SDBL  Sight draft, B/L attached 
SDD  Store door delivery 
SDG  Siding 
SDR  Special Drawing Rights (IMF) 
SDSTBC  Single Decker Self-trimming bulk carrier 
SDWT  Summer deadweight 
SEA  South East Asia 
Sea Waybill  Document indicating the goods were loaded onboard when a document of title (b/L) is not needed. Typically used when a company is shipping goods to itself. 
Sea–Bee Vessels  Ocean vessels constructed with heavy–duty submersible hydraulic lift or elevator system at the stern of the vessel. The Sea–Bee system facilitates forward transfer and positioning of barges. Sea–Bee barges are larger than LASH barges. The Sea–Bee system is no longer used. 
SEAFREIGHT  Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This SEAFREIGHT does not cover any haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only. 
Seagoing (voyage)  The part of a voyage that is not wholly within inland waterways or harbour walls / port limits. 
Seagoing Barges  "Self-propelled barges or towed/pushed dumb barges which are classed for sea-going trade, or which may be classified for estuarial or restricted seagoing voyages between nominated ports. Seagoing barges may be mandated by international conventions, and may also be regulated by local, national or regional regimes." 
Seal Catcher  A vessel equipped for catching seals 
Search & Rescue Vessel  A vessel equipped for rapid response search & rescue operations 
Seawaymax  The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway.

Seawaymax vessels are 740 feet (225.6 m) in length, 78 feet (23.8 m) wide, and have a draft of 26 feet (7.92 m) and a height above the waterline of 35.5 metres (116 ft). 
Seawaymax Vessel  The largest vessel that can transit the locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Length is 226 meters (740 feet); Beam is 24 meters (78 feet); Draft is 7.92 meters (26 feet). 
Seaworthiness  The fitness of a ship to safely load, transport and discharge a particular cargo, with respect to the hazards of the sea. Seaworthiness is a key component of any kind of charter party. See Unseaworthy. 
secondary processing  Cracking, alkylation, and other molecule alteration. Refining beyond the capabilities of a topping plant or hydroskimmer. 
Secure Freight Initiative (SFI)  It is a key provision of the SAFE Port Act of 2006 and is part of the International Container Security scanning project. It builds on its current partnership between the Container Security Initiative and the Megaports Initiative. It expands the use of scanning and imaging equipment to examine more U.S. bound containers, not just those determined to be high risk. 
Security Level 1  Is the level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times. 
Security Level 2  Is the level for which appropriate additional protective security measures shall be maintained for a period of time as a result of heightened risk of a security incident. 
Security Level 3  Is the level for which further specific protective security measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific target. 
SED  U.S. Commerce Department document, “Shipper’s Export Declaration.” 
SEE-BEE  Sea Barge carrier 
SEEMP  Ships Energy Efficiency Management Plan 
Segregated Ballast  Ballast that is contained in dedicated ballast tanks serviced by dedicated ballast pumps and lines with no permanent connection to the cargo system. 
segregated ballast tanks (SBT)  Chambers on a tanker used exclusively to hold ballast water. Ships so equipped need not fill cargo tanks with sea water on unladen voyages. Such vessels need not worry that they will pump oil traces overboard when they deballast. 
segregation  Keeping two or more parcels of crude or product isolated from one another aboard a tanker. Ability to prevent contact between part-cargoes may depend upon not only separate tanks but also separate pumps and piping to handle each grade. The trade would say that a ship which can keep apart three kinds of oil has "three segregations." 
Selective Corrosion  Corrosion of an alloy in which the components react in proportions that differ from their proportions in the alloy 
SELFD  Self Discharging 
Selfdischargers  Bulkers with conveyor belts, or with the use of an excavator that is fitted on a traverse running over the vessel's entire hatch, and that is able to move sideways as well. This allows them to discharge their cargo quickly and efficiently 
SEMI-TRAILERS  Are usually 12.0 meter flatbed road trailers 
Sensitization  Exposure to the substance results in stimulation of the immune system, resulting in a state of hypersensitivity to the substance. Sensitization by skin contact results in local allergic responses. Sensitization by inhalation (respiratory sensitization) causes asthma 
Sensitizer  A substance which may cause no reaction in a person during initial exposure, but to which further exposure will cause an allergic response.  
Sensitizing  A heat treatment that makes steel more sensitive to intergranular corrosion 
Sensory irritant  A material which interacts with nerves in exposed body surfaces, causing local discomfort or pain with associated reflexes. For example, on the eye a sensory irritant material will cause eye discomfort with excess tear production and blinking 
SERM  SERM - SIRE Enhanced Report Manager: SIRE Tanker and Barge Reports and VPQs/BPQs are available electronically 24 hours a day, 365 days per year via the internet to qualified Recipients. SIRE recipients are kept abreast of details of reports held in the d 
Service  A string of vessels which makes a particular voyage and serves a particular market. 
Service Contract  As provided in the Shipping Act of 1984, a contract between a shipper (or a shippers association) and an ocean common carrier (or conference) in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a cer- tain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier or conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level (such as assured space, transit time, port rotation or similar service features). The contract may also specify provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of either party. 
Sesame Oil  The oil obtained from the seeds of ""Sesamum Indicum"" and ""Sesamum Orientale"". An edible oil grown and prized in some Middle East countries, in India and in Central America. Sesame oil gives a characteristic colour reaction and is a required addition to vanaspati in India, to enable the detection of mixtures of vanaspati with ghee. 
severity  The degree of application of pressure, temperature, duration, or other critical processing conditions. The more exposure of a feedstock to factors which promote an intended reaction, the more severe the processing. Higher temperatures, greater pressures, longer residence times, and so forth, constitute greater severity in various processes. 
SF  Stowage Factor or Single Factor or San Francisco or Summer Freeboard 
SFA  Securities and Futures Authority 
SFB  Summer free board 
SFG  Special Forces Group 
sFS  see SSF 
SFS  Sun Flowers 
SG  Specific gravity 
SG  Steering gear room (OCIMF acronym) 
SH  Second Half 
SHE  Safety, Health and Environment 
Sheerlegs Pontoon  A pontoon with sheerlegs for lifting 
SHEX  Sundays and Holidays Excluded 
SHEXEIU  Sundays and holidays excepted, even if used 
SHEXEIU  Sundays and holidays excepted, even if used both ends 
SHEXEIUBE  Sundays and holidays excepted, even if used both end 
SHEXUU  Sundays and holidays excepted, unless used 
SHINC  Sundays and Holidays Included 
Ship  Means all self propelled vessels in excess of 100 tons gross, designed for the carriage of bulk oil, liquefied gas or chemicals and which are chartered for sea going trade, i.e. a seagoing tanker vessel 
Ship Chandler  An individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships. 
Ship Demurrage  A charge for delaying a steamer beyond a stipulated period. 
Ship Load  The amount of cargo a ship carries or is able to carry. See also “Full Shipload Lot” and “Full and Down.” 
Ship Security Officer  Is the person on board the vessel, accountable to the master, designated by the Company as respon- sible for the security of the ship, including implementation and maintenance of the ship security plan and for the liaison with the company security officer and the port facility security officers. 
Ship Security Plan  Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship and designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship’s stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident. 
ship's figures  A quantity of cargo loaded or discharged by a tanker as tabulated using the ship's calibration tables. The trade regularly compares these numbers with shore tank figures. Observers take samples of cargo as it comes aboard. But they do not ordinarily have them tested for quality unless a dispute arises. Most outturn quality reports, on the other hand, come from samples taken from the vessel's tanks at the discharge port. 
Ship-shape and Bristol Fashion  A reference to the precise nature of shipbuilding (and maintenance) as well as the exemplary work that came from Bristol shipyards. 
Ship-to-Ship Transfer  The unloading of cargo from large vessels into smaller vessels that are able to enter smaller ports. 
Ship’s Bells  Measure time onboard ship. One bell sounds for each half hour. One bell means 12:30, two bells mean 1:00, three bells mean 1:30, and so on until 4:00 (eight bells). At 4:30 the cycle begins again with one bell. 
Ship’s Manifest  A statement listing the particulars of all shipments loaded for a specified voyage. 
Ship’s Tackle  All rigging, cranes, etc., utilized on a ship to load or unload cargo. 
Shipment  The tender of one lot of cargo at one time from one shipper to one consignee on one bill of lading. 
Shipper  The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped. Also called Consignor. 
Shipper’s Export Declaration – SED, “Ex Dec”  A joint Bureau of the Census’ International Trade Administration form used for compiling U.S. ex- ports. It is completed by a shipper and shows the value, weight, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as Schedule B commodity code. 
Shipper’s Instructions  Shipper’s communication(s) to its agent and/or directly to the international water–carrier. Instructions may be varied, e.g., specific details/clauses to be printed on the B/L, directions for cargo pickup and delivery. 
Shipper’s Letter of Instructions for issuing an Air Waybill  The document required by the carrier or freight forwarders to obtain (besides the data needed) authorization to issue and sign the air waybill in the name of the shipper. 
Shipper’s Load & Count (SL&C)  Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carriers. 
Shippers Association  A non–profit entity that represents the interests of a number of shippers. The main focus of shippers associations is to pool the cargo volumes of members to leverage the most favorable service contract rate levels. 
Shipping Act of 1916  The act of the U.S. Congress (1916) that created the U.S. Shipping Board to develop water transporta- tion, operate the merchant ships owned by the government, and regulate the water carriers engaged in commerce under the flag of the United States. As of June 18, 1984, applies only to domestic offshore ocean transport. 
Shipping Act of 1984  Effective June 18, 1984, describes the law covering water transportation in the U.S. foreign trade. 
Shipping Act of 1998  Amends the Act of 1984 to provide for confidential service contracts and other items. 
Shipping Order  Shipper’s instructions to carrier for forwarding goods; usually the triplicate copy of the bill of lading. 
SHMT  Shipment 
Shop Primer  A thin coating that is applied to new steel in a newbuilding shipyard to protect it from corrosion during the building process  
Shopping Complex  A vessel adapted for uses as a shopping complex 
Shore  A prop or support placed against or beneath anything to prevent sinking or sagging. 
shore tank figures  Quality data on a shipment derived from storage tank samples taken prior to loading or quantity determination based on storage depletion in the course of loading. Shore tank gauging could also give useful information on the quantity of oil discharged into a receiver's terminal. The industry ordinarily tests discharge (often called outturn) quality of unloaded oil before it moves ashore. These data come from unloading line or ship's composite samples. Suppliers and receivers often use shore figures to verify or dispute ship's figures. 
Short Sea Shipping – SSS (European-EU)  Short Sea Shipping means the movement of cargo by sea between ports situated in geographical Eu- rope or between those ports situated in non-European countries having a coastline on the enclosed seas bordering Europe (Baltic, Mediterranean and Black). It is a successful mode of transport in Eu- rope. 
Short Ton (ST)  A weight unit of measure equal to 2,000 pounds. 
Shortening  Anhydrous fats used in the bakery industry, catering trade and also in domestic kitchens. Plasticity is imparted to these products by texturisation of the feed stock (generally blends of two or more oils and fats) in scraped surface tube coolers to produce small crystals enmeshing liquid oil in a crystalline network. In some cases, gas is also incorporated to improve their plasticity. Animal fats, being solid fats, were the first materials used for making shortenings. Compound shortenings using liquid oil and oleo-stearin from animal fats replaced 100% animal fat-based shortening. Hydrogenation of oils enabled the manufacturer to replace animal fat with hydrogenated oil and develop shortenings based on 100% vegetable oils/fats. Shortenings are formulated and produced to satisfy specific markets and users requirements and therefore show a wide variation in physical properties. The following types of shortenings can be listed - a. bakery shortenings (e.g. plastic shortenings, high ratio cake shortenings and liquid shortenings). b. industrial shortenings for the catering trade, and c. domestic shortenings. 
SHP  Shaft horse power 
SHPO  State Historic Preservation Office (or Officer) 
Shrink Wrap  Polyethylene or similar substance heat–treated and shrunk into an envelope around several units, thereby securing them as a single pack for presentation or to secure units on a pallet. 
SHU  Shuaibu 
Shuttle Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of crude oil specifically for operation between offshore terminals and refineries. Is typically fitted with bow loading facilities 
SI/TW  Single/tweendeck 
SIAM  SIDS Initial Assessment Meeting - See HPV Programme 
SIAP  SIDS Initial Assessment Profile (SIAP) - See HPV Programme 
SIAR  SIDS Initial Assessment Report (SIAR) - See HPV Programme 
Side Loader  A lift truck fitted with lifting attachments operating to one side for handling containers. 
Side–Door Container  A container fitted with a rear door and a minimum of one side door. 
SIDS  Screening Initial Data Set Dossier - See HPV Programme 
SIGGTO  The Society of International Gas Tanker & Terminal Operators: The Society is a non-profit making company, formed to promote high operating standards and best practices in gas tankers and terminals throughout the world. It provides technical advice and s 
Sight Draft  A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee. 
SIGTTO  Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators 
SIM  Similar 
simple refinery  A facility which has no cracking or other secondary processing hardware. "Simple yields," therefore, mean the product slate such an unsophisticated plant can make from crude. See topping yields. 
Simple Triglyceride  A triglyceride comprised of three identical fatty acids. 
SIR  Ship SIR (Chemical) and (Gas) 
SIRC  Styrene Information and Research Council (USA) 
SIRE  Ship Inspection Report Exchange: The OCIMF managed database system that will hold the Inspection Reports carried out by participating members. The aim is to reduce the duplication of the number of inspections carried out on vessels. 
SIT  Stopping in transit 
SITPRO  Simplification of International Trade Procedures (Board) 
SKIDS  Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under cargo to enable fork lift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship 
SKO  Superior kerosene oil 
SKOR  South Korea 
Skyscraper  A small triangular sail set above the skysail in order to maximize effect in a light wind. 
SL  Sailed or Salvage Loss 
SL&C  Shipper's load and count 
SL&T  Shipper's Load and Tally 
SL/W  Shippers load and count.All three clauses are used as needed on the bill of lading to exclude the carrier from liability when the cargo is loaded by the shipper. 
SLD  Sailed 
Sleepers  Loaded containers moving within the railroad system that are not clearly identified on any internally generated reports. 
SLF  Stability and Load Lines and on Fishing Vessels' Safety 
Sling  A wire or rope contrivance placed around cargo and used to load or discharge it to/from a vessel. 
Slip  A vessel’s berth between two piers. 
Slip Point  Fats consist of a complex mixture of glycerides and therefore do not have sharp melting points, unlike pure chemical substances. The slip point of a fat is the temperature at which a column of fat in an open capillary tube moves up the tube when it is subjected to controlled heating in a waterbath. Because of their polymorphic behaviour, the slip point of some fats is dependent on the previous temperature treatment, i.e. tempering of the sample and, therefore, not very reliable analysis. 
Slop Tank Charging Operations  Whereby a dedicated slop handling vessel supplies a quantity of oil to a vessel for tank washing and/or line flushing purposes. 
Slop tanks  A tank utilized to store the COW medium and receipt of tank washings. 
Slot Charter  A time or voyage charter under which the slot charterer has the right to use only a specified amount of the ship's container carrying capacity. In container liner trades, such charters may be reciprocal ("cross slot charters") between operators / carriers, in order to share capacity. 
SLPTA  Slop Tanks 
SLS&C  Shipper's load, stow and count 
SLSD  Stowed, lashed, secured, dunnaged 
SLT  Sludge Tank 
Sludge  That element of the material in a ship's cargo tank which is essentially not free flowing. It consists or hydrocarbon waxes and may contain water/oil emulsions and sediments. 
Slush Fund  A slushy slurry of fat was obtained by boiling or scraping the empty salted meat storage barrels. This stuff called "slush" was often sold ashore by the ship's cook for the benefit of himself or the crew. The money so derived became known as a slush fund. 
SM  Styrene Monomer 
Small  Tankers often used in coastal waters -Size: 10,001 dwt - 19,000 dwt 
SMC  Ship Management Certificate (ISM) 
SME  Small and medium-sized enterprise  
Smell   Tank Cleaning: Minor residues of a smell-producing cargo left in lines, valves and pumps (including pump cofferdams) can contaminate a sensitive cargo. To neutralise the smell of some chemicals (e.g. Acrylate, Nitrobenzene or Pygas) the use of a smell killer may be recommended. 
SMM  Safety Management Manual (ISM) 
Smoke Point  The temperature at which smoke is visibly evolved from an oil as it is being heated. The smoke point is highly dependent on the content of free fatty acids in the oil. A high smoke point is desirable, particularly when using an oil for frying. 
smoke point  An indication of how cleanly kerosene burns. The test reports how high a flame can extend above a wick-fed lamp without making soot. 
SMS  Safety Management System 
SO  Ship's option or Shipping order 
Soap  Soap is commonly used to describe the chemical compound formed by the reaction of an alkali or a metal with fat or fatty acids. Sodium soaps are the most usual products used for toilet and laundry washing. Calcium, potassium and ammonium salts have some specialised uses. 
Soap Stock  The aqueous by-product from the chemical refining operation that is comprised of soap, hydrated gums, water, oil and other impurities. 
Soapstock  In the chemical refining of crude oils, free fatty acids are removed by neutralisation with alkali and settle to the bottom as alkali soaps, known as soapstock. 
SOB  Shipped on board 
SOC  Shipper Owned Container 
SOCPF  Statement of Compliance for Port Facility 
SOF or S/F  Statement of facts

At the end of the stay of the ship in the port the agent will make up the history with all data which are important for the Ship Owner and for the Charterer and that are related to the loading and the discharging of the ship. This historical state is called "statement of facts" or "port log" and serves as the basis for the drawing of the "time sheet" used for the calculating of the laytime and demurrage and possibly despatch money. The officer on board must record all information related to the loading or discharging *working hours, interruptions of loading and/or discharging) in the ship's log book or in a special workbook. 
SOL  Shipowner's liability or Shipper owned/leased 
SOLAS  International Convention for Safety Of Life At Sea (1974/78): The International regulations which relates to the safe construction and safety equipment to be carried on all sea going self propelled vessels. 
Solid Fat Content  Fats such as butter, margarine, bakery shortening, beef tallow and cocoa butter appear to be solid but are, in fact, a mixture of solid and liquid components. The proportion of solid present at various temperatures of use is often of interest in relation to the function to be performed, for example, the spreading of butter on bread. A simple and rapid measurement of the solid fat content (SFC) can be obtained by the use of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) instrument. The measurement depends on the fact that the protons of the combined hydrogen atoms of fat in the liquid state are more mobile than those of the fat in the solid state. The mobile protons are therefore more responsive to a magnetic field and this fact can be used to measure the proportion of liquid fat present. The method is superseding the dilation procedure. 
Solubility  The extent to which a substance mixes with a liquid to produce a solution 
Solvent  A solvent is a liquid that has the ability to dissolve, suspend or extract other materials, without chemical change to the material or solvent. Solvents make it possible to process, apply, clean or separate materials. Water is an inorganic solvent. Organic solvents include hydrocarbon solvents, oxygenated solvents and chlorinated solvents. 
Solvent Extraction  A process which usually uses hexane as a solvent to extract oil from oil-bearing materials. The residual oil left in extracted soyabean flakes or meal can be reduced to one percent or less. In the United States, nearly all soyabeans are processed by solvent extraction. A substantial part of cottonseed, flaxseed and other oilseeds is handled by this method. 
SOM  Swedish Official Measure 
Son of a Gun  When in port, and with the crew restricted to the ship for any extended period of time, wives and ladies of easy virtue often were allowed to live aboard along with the crew. Infrequently, but not uncommonly, children were born aboard, and a convenient place for this was between guns on the gun deck. If the child's father was unknown, they were entered in the ship's log as "son of a gun". 
SOP  Standard Operating Procedures 
SOPEP  Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (ISM) 
SOSC  State On-Scene (On-Site) Commander 
sour  High in sulfur content. Sour vacuum gasoils, for example, contain more than about 0.5 sulfur, the common limit for sweet vacuum gasoils. Application of this term to natural gasolines tends to focus on mercaptan sulfur concentration. Sour natural gasolines test Doctor positive. 
sour crude  Petroleum with high sulfur content. In this case, high commonly means more than 1.0 weight percent. 
Sour Crude  Crude oil with a high sulphur content. 
SOUS PALAN  Under hook 
SOUSPALAN  Under hook discharge 
southern grade  see Northern grade. Motor gasoline that meets Colonial pipeline specifications for product delivered to points south of Greensboro, North Carolina 
Soyabean Oil  Soyabean oil is obtained by solvent extraction of the soyabean. The oil content of the bean is about 18%, but the residue is a valuable high protein feed meal and represents about 60% of the sale value of the crop. 
SP  Safe Port 
sp. Gr.  An abbreviation of specific gravity. 
SPA  Subject to Particular Average. See also Particular Average. 
Space Charter  A voyage charterparty under which the space charterer has the right to use only part of the vessel's capacity. 
SPASS  Skaw - Passero range 
SPB  St. PetersBurg 
SPD  Speed or Ship Pays Dues 
SPD/CONS.  Speed and Consumption 
Specific Gravity  The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of the mass of a given volume of the substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at a specific temperature. In the AOCS Methods Cc 10a-25 for oils and liquid fats (Cc 10b-25 for solid fats), the ratio is measured at 25°C. 
specific gravity  An expression of materials' density in terms of their relationship to a reference substance. Water at 4 C serves as the reference for hydrocarbons, both liquid and solid. Water has specific gravity of 1.0, as 1 cc of its weighs 1 gram. The specific gravity of liquid hydrocarbons indicates the ratio of their density in ccgram to water's. For example, motor gasoline typically has a density around 8.5 barrel per metric ton, or 0.740cc per gram. That makes its specific gravity (0.740 ccgram mogas)(1.0 ccgram water) = 0.740. Full expression of specific gravity requires specification of a temperature for both the described and the reference substances. Therefore, a complete citation of a motor gasoline sample's specific gravity might read 0.740 @ 60 F39.2 F. The formula found under API gravity can convert specific gravity to API degrees. 
SPI  Society of Plastics Industry (USA) 
spike  Injection of one stream into another for later recovery. Transportation of some condensates, for instance, takes place by spiking them into crude oil cargoes. 
Spine Car  An articulated five–platform railcar. Used where height and weight restrictions limit the use of stack cars. It holds five 40–foot containers or combinations of 40– and 20–foot containers. 
SPM  Saturday P.M. or Single Point Mooring 
SPMOMG  SPM Operating & Maintenance Guidelines 
SPN  Spain 
SPORE  Singapore 
Spot Charter  A type of arrangement when a charterer fixes a vessel for a single laden voyage from one or more load ports to one or more discharge ports. The owner receives freight either on a dollar per ton basis or on a lump sum basis. 
spot Charter  Arrangement for a ship to carry a certain cargo on a particular route. Such deals, sometimes called voyage charters, usually cover a single trip. Commitments for two or more consecutive voyages do happen, though, occasionally. In a spot charter, the shipowner pays fuel and port charges. This assignment of costs distinguishes spot business from time-charters. When a charterer takes a vessel for a period rather than a voyage, he pays bunkers and port charges. 
spot Deal  An isolated sale. In transactions of this kind, a specific quantity of oil, usually a convenient unit like a cargo, a bargeload, or a pipeline batch, changes from seller's hands to buyer's. The notion once assumed promptness. That element has vanished now that companies trade spot oil many months forward. In today's vernacular, “spot” chiefly distinguishes self –contained transactions from period business, sometimes called deals or contract deals. 
Spot Vessel  Spot vessel means vessels contracted for a single voyage and not included in a COA. 
Spotting  Placing a container where required to be loaded or unloaded. 
Spreader  A piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings. 
SPT  Spot 
SQAS  Safety and Quality Assessment System 
Squat  the tendency of a ship to draw more water astern than when stationary, this amounts to less available underkeel clearance 
SR  Soviet Register 
SR  Stabilizer Room (OCIMF acronym) 
SRBL  Signing and Releasing Bill of Lading 
SRC  Slops Receiving Station 
SRML  Single Rope Maximum Loading 
SRT  Spill Response Team 
SS  Suez Laden, Suez Ballast 
SS  Shipside or Self-Sustained or Screw Steamer or Stainless Steel 
SS, S.S. or S/S  A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.

The term steamboat is usually used to refer to smaller steam-powered boats working on lakes and rivers, particularly riverboats; steamship generally refers to larger steam-powered ships, usually ocean-going, capable of carrying a (ship's) boat. The term steam wheeler is archaic and rarely used. 
SSA  Ship Security Assessment 
SSB  Single Side Band 
SSBA  Surface Supplied Breathing Apparatus 
SSC  Scientific Support Coordinator 
sSF  saybolt seconds, Furol. The unit of Saybolt Furol viscosity, a method of determining liquids resistance to flow. An alternate acronym, SFS, for Saybolt Furol seconds, remains in use. 
SSHINC  Saturdays, Sundays and holidays included 
SSO  Ship Security Officer 
SSP  Ship Security Plan 
SSSCL  Ship/Shore Safety Checklist for Safe Transport, Handling and Storage of Dangerous Substances in Port Areas 
SST  Short ton (2000 lb. Avoirpois) 
SSTG  ICS/OCIMF Ship to Ship Transfer Guide 
sSU  saybolt seconds, Universal. The units of an empirical flow resistance measurement (Saybolt Universal viscosity). The acronym sometimes appears as SUS, Saybolt Universal seconds. 
SSW  Summer salt water 
ST  Side tank 
ST  Sidethruster room (OCIMF acronym) 
stability  Crude and products which will not change spontaneously or readily have this attribute. Jet fuels, for instance, need thermal stability. They must resist decomposition when heated. 
Stability  Ship Stability: The tendency of a vessel to return to an erect position after being inclined by an exterior force.Also known as positive stability. 
STABILITY  It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. When cargo is loaded / discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel 
Stabilization  An addition of titanium or niobium, making stainless steels less sensitive to intergranular corrosion 
stabilized Crude  Crude and condensates come from the ground mixed with gas and light gas liquids. Removal of these volatile materials leaves a stabilized stream--one with a vapor pressure ordinary storage and transportation vessels can safely handle. 
Stabilizer  A stabilizer is a substance added to another substance to prevent an alteration of its physical state. Stabilizers are added to plastics so as to allow them to have a long and useful life in any application, by keeping their properties stable. 
stable  The notion of constancy and steadiness has several applications in the oil industry. Frequently it describes crude freed of volatile light ends--stabilized crude. Other times, it refers to blends of compatible components, mixtures which will not spontaneously separate. Stable cracked fuel oil, therefore, means a combination of ingredients which will not divide into two parts, each insoluble in the other. 
Stack Car  An articulated five–platform rail car that allows containers to be double stacked. A typical stack car holds ten 40–foot equivalent units (FEU’s). 
Stacktrain  A rail service whereby rail cars carry containers stacked two high on specially operated unit trains. Each train includes up to 35 articulated multi–platform cars. Each car is comprised of 5 well–type platforms upon which containers can be stacked. No chassis accompany containers. 
standard Export Quality  A common description of crude oils sold on the world market. The normal run of a crude grade as available at a loading point. 
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)  A standard numerical code used by the U.S. Government to classify products and services. 
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)  A standard numeric code developed by the United Nations to classify commodities used in international trade, based on a hierarchy. 
Standby Safety Vessel  A vessel primarily equipped to perform safety standby duties. Will be fitted with accommodation and facilities for the rescue, reception and initial care of survivors from offshore installations accidents 
Starboard  Right side of a ship when facing the front or forward end 
Start Over with a Clean Slate  A slate tablet was kept near the helm on which the watch keeper would record the speeds, distances, headings and tacks during the watch. If there were no problems during the watch, the slate would be wiped clean so that the new watch could start over with a clean slate. 
Statute Of Limitation  A law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted. 
STB(D)  Startboard 
STBC  Self-trimming bulk carrier 
STBD  Starboard 
STBL  Ship To Be Lightered 
STC  Said to contain. 
STCC  Standard Transportation Commodity Code 
STCW  Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping 
STCW 95  Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping Convention (IMO) 
STCW V Para 1  Completed basic tanker training that applies to junior officers who have cargo-handling responsibilities 
STCW V Para 2  Completed specialized training that is required for officers who have operational responsibility for cargo transfer 
STDS  Standards 
steam Cracker  A petrochemical plant unit which produces olefins, particularly ethylene, and in some cases aromatics, by pyrolysis. The trade often calls these plants ethylene crackers, after their primary product. Some units, called light liquids crackers, crack ethane or LPG. Heavy liquids crackers can run on naphtha or gasoil feedstocks. 
Steam cracking-Steam cracker  Steam cracking, a further application of thermal cracking, is a petrochemical process used to produce olefinic raw materials (e.g. propylene, ethylene) from various feedstocks for petrochemicals manufacture. The feedstocks range from ethane to vacuum gas oil, with heavier feeds giving higher yields of by-products such as naphtha. The most common feeds are ethane, butane, and naphtha. 
Steam Supply Pontoon, non propelled  A non propelled pontoon used for the purpose of generating a steam supply 
Steamship Conference  A group of vessel operators joined together for the purpose of establishing freight rates. 
Steamship Guarantee  An indemnity issued to the carrier by a bank; protects the carrier against any possible losses or dam- ages arising from release of the merchandise to the receiving party. This instrument is usually issued when the bill of lading is lost or is not available. 
Stearic Acid  Chemically, an 18 carbon chain saturated acid. Commercially, the term is used for mixed solid acids of various compositions. Stearic acid is used for industrial purposes such as in the rubber and oleochemical industries. Beef tallow is the principal source of commercial stearic acid. Stearic acid is one of the most important saturated fatty acids present in the triglycerides of both animal and vegetable fats/oils. Stearic acid and its derivatives have uses in many industries, such as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. 
Stearin   The term refers to the solid fraction of an oil obtained by filtration or centrifugation after the oil has been crystallised at a controlled temperature. Stearins are characterised by being more saturated than the oils from which they are derived. Fractionation of palm oil yields palm stearin which is used in shortenings, vanaspati, margarines and soap. 
STEL  Short Term Exposure Limit. See Threshold Limit Value 
STEM  Referring to the readiness of cargo which is often a prerequisite to the fixing of a vessel 
stem  A parcel of crude or product made available by a supplier. Sometimes a lot provided to a term lifter. Sometimes a spot availability. 
stem dates  see LAYDAYS 
Sterilization   Sterilisation is the first process carried out at the oil mill. Fresh fruit bunches are loaded into cages as soon as possible after arrival at the mill, and the cages, which run on rails, are loaded into a horizontal cylindrical pressure vessel. The load is cooked under steam pressure for about 1½ hours. By this means, enzymes are inactivated and the fruit is softened. 
STERN  At or towards the rear of a ship 
Stern Trawler  A vessel for catching fish by trawling with nets handled over the stern 
Sterol  A compound made up of the sterol nucleus and 8-10 carbon side chain and an alcohol group. 
Stevedore  Individual or firm that employs longshoremen and who contracts to load or unload the ship. 
STEW CONVE  International convention on standards of training certification and watch-keeping for seafarers 
STEW CONVE or STCW  International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 
STEWCODE  Seafarers training certification and watch-keeping 
STG  Salvage tug 
Still  Informal, familiar abbreviations of distillation unit. 
STL  Steel 
STOF  Statement of facts 
stoke  The basic unit of kinematic viscosity. Most of the time, the industry uses a smaller unit, CST (centistokes). One stoke equals 100 centistokes. 
STOLGOE  The Safe Transfer of Liquified Gas in an Offshore Environment 
Stone Carrier  A vessel for the carriage of large stones for the construction of breakwaters and the like; stones are discharged sideways from a flat deck 
Store–Door Pick–up Delivery  A complete package of pick up or delivery services performed by a carrier from origin to final con- sumption point. 
Storing Operations  Whereby a vessel loads a quantity of spares, stores, victualling goods or crew effects for the consumption and/or utilisation by the vessel and her assigned personnel. 
Stowage  A marine term referring to loading freight into ships’ holds. 
STR  Steamer of Strait 
Straddle Carrier  Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework. 
Straight (solid) stream  Method used to apply or distribute water from the end of a hose. The water is delivered under pressure for penetration. In an efficient straight (solid) stream, approximately 90% of the water passes through an imaginary circle 38 cm (15 inches) in diameter at the breaking point. Hose (solid or straight) streams are frequently used to cool tanks and other equipment exposed to flammable liquid fires, or for washing burning spills away from danger points. However, straight streams will cause a spill fire to spread if improperly used or when directed into open containers of flammable and combustible liquids. (See also water spray) 
Straight Bill of Lading  A non–negotiable bill of lading which states a specific identity to whom the goods should be delivered. See Bill of Lading. 
straight-Run  A product of crude distillation as opposed to cracking. Some feedstock outlets require straight run materials. Production of catfeed, for instance, demands straight run residue. 
Strauss Test  Corrosion testing in a copper sulphate solution containing sulphuric acid. Used to detect the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of stainless steel 
Stray current corrosion  Impressed current corrosion caused by current flowing through paths other than the intended circuits 
stream  Any hydrocarbon flow. Some uses of this general term include the product emerging from a processing unit (e.g., the naphtha stream from a crude still), the supply of a raw material or product (e.g., the natural gasoline stream from West 
Streicher Test  Corrosion testing in a ferric sulphate solution containing sulphuric acid. Used to detect the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of stainless steel 
Stress corrosion  Process involving conjoint corrosion and straining of the metal due to applied or residual stress 
Stress relieving  Heat treatment carried out in order to reduce internal stresses in steel 
Stripping  Stripping is the process of removing free fatty acids by steam distillation during physical refining. This is usually carried out in the deodoriser. This is the second operation of the palm oil mill. After sterilisation each cage is tipped into a hopper which feeds a rotating drum in which the fruit is knocked out of the bunch. Empty bunches are rejected as waste. 
Stripping  The removal of the final contents of a cargo tank using equipment additional to the main cargo pumps. 
STS  ship to ship 
Stuffing  Putting cargo into a container. 
STW  Said To Weigh or Stowage 
STW  Standards of Training and Watchkeeping 
STWG  Stowing (cbm/feet) 
STWGE  Stowage 
Styrene  Styrene is a clear, colorless liquid that is derived from petroleum and natural gas by-products, but which also occurs naturally. Styrene is used to create plastic materials used in a wide range of strong, flexible, and lightweight products. It is used in everything from food containers and packaging materials to cars, boats, and computers. 
Styrenic plastics  Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of styrene or co-polymerization of styrene with other unsaturated compounds the styrene being in greatest amount by weight. Styrene plastics are easy to process and offer excellent price/performance ratios. Polystyrenes are used everywhere: as packaging materials or containers, and in a wide range of appliance and equipment housings.. 
SU  Set up 
SUB  Subject to, or Substitute 
Sub Dets  Subject Details 
SUB or SUBS  Subjects 
Sub Stem  Subject Stem. Relating to the availability of cargo on the date or dates on which a ship is offering to load. 
Sub-Panamax Vessel  a fully cellular containership that is less than the maximum dimensions to transit the Panama Canal and can carry between 2,000 and 3,000 TEUs 
Subchronic (aquatic) toxicity  Adverse effects on aquatic organisms that occur largely from continuous long-term exposure to a chemical or other potentially toxic material or agent, along or in combination, but where the exposure time covers only a portion of the life cycle (lifespan) of the aquatic species tested or exposed naturally. The effects may be the result of a single exposure (e.g., to a strong acid) but more often they are the consequence of repeated or continuous long-term exposures. Subcronic toxic effects may be lethal or sublethal.  
Subchronic toxicity  Effects resulting from repeated exposure to a material for 10 to 15% of the lifespan of the species; for rodents this is about three months.  
Subject  A qualification on the approval to use a vessel that requires the owner or Charterer (or both) to obtain a positive response from the owner or Charterer (or both) that the vessel subject (qualification) is lifted before the vessel can be fixed (chartered) 
subjects  Unresolved items which prevent confirmation of a deal. Tanker chartering and oil trading both involve negotiations which conclude "subject to" removal of some exception. A charterer might fix a ship subject to stem confirmation or subject management approval of buyer's 
Submarine  A combat vessel designed to operate underwater 
Submarine Chaser  A combat vessel specifically designed for the pursuit and attack of submarines 
Submarine Salvage Vessel  A naval auxiliary vessel specifically adapted for the recovery of stranded submarines 
Submersible  A non naval submersible craft 
Subrogate  To put in place of another; i.e., when an insurance company pays a claim it is placed in the same posi- tion as the payee with regard to any rights against others. 
Substance  The word "substance" is used to mean chemical elements and their compounds in the natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the stability of the product. In the European legislation, only the word "substance" is used. 
Substantial Corrosion  Substantial corrosion exists if the diminution of the structural element under consideration is in excess of 75% of the maximum allowable diminution, as defined by the vessel's Classification Society for each structural element.  
SUCL  Set up carload 
Suction Dredger  A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board, transferred to other vessels, pumped ashore or deposited elsewhere using a spray 
Suction Dredger Pontoon  A non propelled dredger pontoon fitted with suction equipment 
Suez Net Tonnage Volume  100 cubic feet = 1 ton of cargo carrying capacity assigned to a vessel by the Suez Canal Authority, issued on vessel''s first transit of canal. The tonnage is used to calculate fees and tolls. 
Suezmax  Vessel designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks.(120,000 dwt - 200,000 dwt) 
Suezmax Tanker  A tanker of 120,000 to 199,000dwt. 
Sufferance Wharf  A wharf licensed and attended by Customs authorities. 
SULCL  Set up in less than carload 
sulfur  An element which contaminates crude and refined products. Its presence in troublesome or objectionable quantity makes a stream sour. Oil which contains much sulfur can corrode processing hardware, smell bad, fetch less money than sweet grades, and require various kinds 
Summer Draft  "Summer draft is the vertical distance between the summer load line and the bottom of the hull." 
Sunflower Oil  Sunflower oil is obtained from the decorticated seeds of the sunflower (""Helianthus Annuus""). A high quality unrefined edible oil may be obtained by cold pressing of the seeds but the bulk of the commercial product is obtained by hot pressing and solvent extraction followed by refining. Sunflower is grown extensively in the southern parts of Eastern Europe, principally the USSR, but has recently also been produced in the USA and, more important, in Western Europe (France). 
Superabsorbents  Polymers of acrylic acid, superabsorbent material is widely-used in personal care products to absorb fluids. It comes in the form of large particles, about the size of table salt, that are enclosed in the interior of the product, and helps to keep skin healthy and consumers comfortable. Superabsorbent material can absorb 100 times its weight in water. 
Supercargo  Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain 
Superintendency  Practice of overseeing a project or ship as the authorized representative of a customer. 
Supply Chain  A logistical management system which integrates the sequence of activities from delivery of raw ma- terials to the manufacturer through to delivery of the finished product to the customer into measur- able components. “Just in Time” is a typical value–added example of supply chain management. 
Supply Platform, jack up (Lift Boat)  A supply platform, jack up (Lift Boat) 
Supply Platform, semi submersible  A semi submersible offshore supply platform 
Supply Tender  A vessel equipped as a general purpose supply vessel to remote communities (e.g. on islands, in the Arctic) 
Surcharge  An extra or additional charge 
Surface Transportation Board (STB)  The U.S. federal body charged with enforcing acts of the U.S. Congress that affect common carriers in interstate commerce. STB replaced the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1997. 
Surfactant  This is short for surface-active agent and is used to describe a chemical that will reduce the surface tension of water when it is added to it. This enables the water to mix with materials it would otherwise not dissolve, such as grease. Surfactants can be detergents, wetting agents and emulsifiers, but all have the same chemical ability for one end of the molecule to be attracted to water and the other to organic materials, like greases, fats or oils. 
Surfactants  Surfactants, or surface active agents, are substances that, when dissolved in water, give a product the ability to remove dirt from surfaces such as the human skin, textiles, and other solids. Each surfactant molecule has a hydrophilic (water-loving) head that is attracted to water molecules and a hydrophobic (waterhating) tail that repels water and simultaneously attaches itself to oil and grease in dirt. These opposing forces loosen the dirt and suspend it in the water. Surfactants derived from fats and oils are by far the largest oleochemical market at present. Virtually all types of fats, oils and fatty acids are used in this area. 
Surge  The longitudinal oscillatory linear motion about the center of gravity (origin of body axis) in the ship travel direction, usually due to wave effects; motion backward and forward (fore and aft direction) (EM 1110-2-1613). 
Surging  Ship Stability: is the linear longitudinal (front/back) motion 
Surtax  An additional extra tax. 
survey  An assessment of oil quantity and or quality prepared by an inspection company. A loading survey, for instance, involves determination of how much crude or product a supplier pimped aboard a vessel. it may also entail taking samples of the 
sUS  see SSU 
SV  Sailing vessel 
SVP  Single voyage permit 
SW  Salt water; Shipper’s weight 
SWAD  Salt Water Arrival Draft 
Swaying  Ship Stability: is the linear lateral (side-to-side) motion 
SWD  Salt water draft 
SWDD  Salt water departure draft 
sweet  Low in sulfur content. See SOUR. 
sweet Crude  Petroleum with a low sulfur content. The industry generally puts a maximum of 0.5 weight percent sulfur on sweet crude. 
Sweet Crude  Crude oil that has a low sulphur content. Typically refined into gasoline and is in high demand. 
sweetening  Processing to remove sulfur. Hydrodesulfurization, for instance, can produce sweet catfeed. Caustic washing can sweeten sour natural gasolines to make them suitable for motor gasoline blending. 
SWL  Safe Working Load or Statutory Water Level 
SWSD  Salt Water Sailing Draft 
SWW  Single Swinging Winches 
Symbol B  Ship Stability: Symbol for center of buoyancy or buoyant force. 
Symbol G  Ship Stability: Symbol for center of gravity of the vessel. 
SYNA  Synacomex 
Synergy  The combined effects of more than one hazardous material resulting in more damage than the additive effects of each material 
Syngas  This is an abbreviation of synthesis gas and is applied to several kinds of mixtures that are produced by reacting steam, or steam and oxygen, with a heated carbon-containing material such as natural gas, heavy petroleum oil, coal or coke. Syngas consists mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and this can then be converted to other more useful chemicals such as methanol, acetic acid, gasoline, or waxes. 
Synonym  This is another name that a particular chemical or composition may be known as. A chemical can have a number of different names or synonyms. For example, METHYL ALCOHOL is the Product Name; however this cargo is also known as methanol, wood alcohol etc – these are Synonyms. 
Synthesis-Synthetic  The production of a substance by the union of chemical elements, groups, or simpler compounds, or by the degradation of a complex compound. 
Synthetic rubbers  Synthetic rubbers are made of raw material derived from petroleum, coal, oil, natural gas, and acetylene. Many of them are copolymers, i.e., polymers consisting of more than one monomer. 
Systemic toxicity  Adverse effects produced by a substance ( or conversion products) after absorption into, and circulation by, the blood stream. Systemic effects occur in tissues remote from the site where the material comes into contact with the body, and from where it is absorbed.