Abbreviations & Definitions
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Abbreviation
Definition
P&A  Procedures and Arrangements (manual) 
P&C  Private & Confidential 
P&C or P+C or PANDC  Private & Confidential 
P.P.  Perpendicular 
P.P.I  Policy proof of interest 
P/A o PA  Particular average 
P/C or PCGO  Part cargo, parcel cargo. Goods which do not represent the entire cargo for a particular ship but whose quantity is sufficient to be carried on charter terms. 
P/E  Purchase enquiry 
P/F or PF  Pro Forma 
P/G or P.G. or PG  Persian Gulf 
P/L  Partial Loss 
P/L  Partial loss 
P/N  Promissory note 
P/O  Pier/ocean 
P/P  Pier/Pier 
P/S  Public sale 
PA  Particular average 
PAC  Pacific Coast 
Packing List  Itemized list of commodities with marks/numbers but no cost values indicated. 
PAD  Pacific Australia Direct 
PADAG  Please Authorize Delivery Against Guarantee: A request from the consignee to the shipper to allow the carrier or agent to release cargo against a guarantee, either bank or personal. Made when the consignee is unable to produce original bills of lading. 
PAH  Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. PAH's occur mainly, and to high levels, in coconut oil because of the practice of smoke drying the copra. However, PAH's have also been detected in other oils, although at a much lower level. Removal of PAH's is by proper deodorisation in combination with treatment of active carbon. 
Paired Ports  A U.S. Customs program wherein at least two designated Customs ports will enter cargo that arrives at either port without the necessity of an in–bound document. 
Pallet  A platform with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. 
Palletised Cargo Ship  A single or multi deck cargo ship loaded and unloaded by way of pallets lift(s). There are no weather deck hatches 
Palm Acid Oil  It is a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of palm oil resulting from the acidulation of soapstock. It is normally used for making laundry soaps. 
Palm Kernel Cake  The residue after pressing and/or solvent extraction of palm kernels to obtain the oil. Used as a component of animal feed. 
Palm Mid Fraction  Palm mid fraction (PMF) is obtained by a two stage fractionation. Usually, in the first stage, the highest melting solid components are removed and, in the second stage, the most liquid. The solid residue of the second stage has sharp melting properties that make it highly suitable for use in confectionery products. 
Palm Oil  The oil obtained from the fruit flesh of the oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis). World production in 1995/96 was estimated by the USDA at 15.69 million tonnes, Malaysia and Indonesia being the major producing countries. Most of the plantings today are of the ""tenera"" variety obtained by crossing dura (thick shell) and pisifera (almost shell-less). The fruit characteristics of tenera are almost ideal. 
Palm Olein  Palm oil is separated into palm stearin (30-35% of the original oil ) and palm olein (65-70%). The latter finds a ready market as a high-quality, highly stable frying oil. With improved filtration procedures the yield of olein has been raised to 71-78%. 
Palm Stearin  As mentioned above, palm oil is separated into palm stearin and palm olein. The olein is the more valuable product, but the stearin can be used as a hard fat in margarine stock or as an alternative to tallow in the oleochemical industry where it serves as a source of stearic, palmitic and oleic glycerides. 
Palmitic Acid  Palmitic acid, having a 16 carbon atom chain, is the most widely distributed saturated fatty acid. It occurs in practically all animal, vegetable and marine animal fats and is a major component of lard, tallow, palm oil and cocoa butter. 
Paml Kernel Oil  The oil obtained from the kernel of the oil palm fruit. Its chemical composition is quite different from that of the palm oil obtained from the flesh. Palm kernel oil is a lauric type oil similar to coconut oil. 
PAN  Panama 
Panamax  Medium Range Tanker, maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal- designed for carrying bulk crude oil in tanks. (60,000 dwt - 80,000 dwt approx with 32.2m beam limitation) 
Panamax Tanker  A liquid cargo vessel of 50,000 to 70,000dwt. 
Panamax tankers  Oil carriers which meet the 32.2 meter beam and 259 meter LOA limitations of the Panama Canal. Modern ship design translates those dimensions into a vessel with a maximum deadweight tonnage around 70,000. 
Panamax Vessel  Ships built to maximize capacity within the Panama Canal lock size limits of 950 feet long, 106 feet wide. Design draft is usually no greater than 40 feet and sails no greater than the 39.5 feet canal limit, with deadweights up to 80,000 tons. 
PANDI or P&I  Protection and Indemnity's (Club). A mutual Association formed by shipowners to provide protection from large financial loss by one member by contribution towards that loss by all members. The P & I Clubs cover liabilities not insurable by the shipowner. 
Paper barrels  Also known as dry barrels or electric barrels, these units trade in the futures or other non-physical markets. These terms designate the opposite of the wet barrels traded in physical deals. Since short sales in the wet market involve product the seller does not own at the time of making the deal, dry barrel terminology may apply. 
Paper Ramp  A technical rail ramp, used for equalization of points not actually served. 
Paper Rate  A published rate that is never assessed because no freight moves under it. 
Paraffinic  A high concentrate of paraffins, usually in distinction from naphthenic or olefinic mixtures. 
Paraffins  straight- or branched-chain hydrocarbons containing no unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. A high paraffins content gives a naphtha a low octane rating, a diesel oil a high octane number, and a vacuum gasoil or straight run fuel oil a good susceptibility to catalytic cracking. The trade often uses the term waxy to signify a high paraffins content in a heavy distillate or resid. The "P" in PONA stands for paraffins. 
Paraxylene  One of the forms of xylene, paraxylene is used to make polyesters, which have applications in clothing, packaging and plastic bottles. The most widely-used polyester is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), used in lightweight, recyclable soft drinks bottles, as fibers in clothing, as a filling for anoraks and duvets, in car tyre cords and conveyor belts. It can also be made into a film that is used in video and audiotapes and x-ray films. 
Parcel Receipt  An arrangement whereby a steamship company, under rules and regulations established in the freight tariff of a given trade, accepts small packages at rates below the minimum bill of lading, and issues a parcel receipt instead of a bill of lading. 
Parcel tanker  A ship fitted to segregate a large number of products. Some of these vessels, called chemical carriers, can handle more than a dozen materials simultaneously. Most of these ships have tanks made of stainless steel or lined with inert, easily cleaned coatings. This equipment permits carriage of high-purity or corrosive materials, or simply the use of tanks for a succession of assorted materials without contamination problems. The trade likes to call these flexible vessels "drugstore ships". 
Parcels Tanker  A chemical tanker with many segregated cargo tanks to carry multiple grades of chemicals as defined in the International Bulk Chemical Code. Typically these can have between 10 and 60 different tanks 
Parraffinic naphtha  A naphtha composed primarily of paraffinic molecules. In general, the feedstock trade considers 65 percent paraffins content the minimum for a paraffinic naphtha. Paraffins have a low octane rating. They crack readily, however. This combination of properties gears paraffinic naphthas for ethylene feedstock more than for high-octane motor gasoline blending. 
Partial Containerships  Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo. 
Partial Shipments  Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase “partial shipments permit- ted.” 
Partially Hydrogenated  The term used to describe an oil which has been lightly to moderately hydrogenated to shift the melting point to a higher temperature range and increase the stability of the oil. Partially hydrogenated oils remain liquid and are used in a wide variety of food applications. 
Particular Average  See Insurance, Particular Average. 
Passenger Ship  A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, some of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
Passenger Ship, Inland Waterways  A vessel used for carriage of passengers with purpose of a to b transport on rivers/lakes/canals, not suitable for open sea voyages. 
Passenger/Container Ship  A container ship with accommodation for the carriage of more than 12 passengers 
Passenger/Cruise  A vessel certificated to carry more than 12 passengers, all of whom may be accommodated in cabins 
Passenger/Landing Craft  A landing craft certificated to carry more than 12 passengers 
Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles)  A ro-ro cargo ship with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles), Inland Waterways  A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Rail)  A ro-ro cargo ship for the additional carriage of rail-vehicles and with accommodation for more than 12 passengers 
Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles/Train), Inland Waterways  A vessel designed for the transportation of Vehicles or Rail vehicles. Not designed for operation in open sea 
Passivation  A nitric acid wash of high chromium stainless steel ship's tanks to form a very thin oxide film on the metal surface which serves as a protective barrier. 
Passivation potential  Corrosion potential, at which the corrosion current has a peak value, and above which there is a range of potentials, where the metal is in a passive state 
Passive state  State of a metal resulting from a passivation, usually the formation of an extremely thin surface oxide layer 
PASTUS  Past Us 
PASTUS or PUS  Past Us 
Patrol Vessel  A non military vessel used for patrol duties 
Patrol Vessel, Naval  A naval vessel for patrolling duties 
Pax  Passenger Vessel 
Payee  A party named in an instrument as the beneficiary of the funds. Under letters of credit, the payee is either the drawer of the draft or a bank. 
Payer  A party responsible for the payment as evidenced by the given instrument. Under letters of credit, the payer is the party on whom the draft is drawn, usually the drawee bank. 
PB  Permanent Bunkers or Poop and Bridge 
PBF  Poop, bridge and forecastle 
PBL  Parallel Body Length 
PC  Per Container or Part Cargo or Port Consumption or Product carrier or Period of Charter or Port Clearance 
PCC  Pure Car Carrier or Pre-Carriage Charges 
PCL  Parcel 
PCM  Per calendar month (hire) 
PCNT  Panama Canal Net Tonnage 
PCO  Port, charterers' option 
PCO or PICO  Port in charterer’s option 
PCS  Pieces 
PCT  Percentage or % 
PCTC  Pure Car and Truck Carrier 
PD  Per Diem or Per day or Port Dues or Paid or Passed 
PD  Production deck (OCIMF acronym) 
PD STG£  British Pound Sterling (GBP) 
PDA  PDA (Proforma Disbursement Account) Calculation – Preliminary Estimate  
PDAOPR  Per day and/or pro rata 
PDM  Punta De Madeira 
PDOPR  Per diem or pro rata 
PDPR  Per Day Pro-Rata 
PDS  Pound Sterling 
PE  Polyethylene 
Pearl Shells Carrier  A vessel equipped for the carriage of pearl shells 
PEL  Permussible Exposure Limit. This is one of the most important OSHA limits used. It is defined as the allowable limit for air containment in which works may be exposed day after day without adverse health effects.  
PER  Period 
Per Diem  A charge, based on a fixed daily rate. 
Per Hatch Per Day  PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus:

Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Number of hatches) = Days

Each pair of parallel twin hatches shall count as one hatch. Nevertheless, a hatch that is capable of being worked by two gangs simultaneously shall be counted as two hatches. 
PER SE  By Itself 
Per Working Hatch Per Day or Per Workable Hatch Per Day  PER HATCH PER DAY shall mean that the Laytime is to be calculated by dividing the quantity of cargo by the result of multiplying the agreed daily rate per hatch by the number of the Vessel’s hatches. Thus:

Laytime = Quantity of cargo / (Daily rate x Number of hatches) = Days

Each pair of parallel twin hatches shall count as one hatch. Nevertheless, a hatch that is capable of being worked by two gangs simultaneously shall be counted as two hatches. 
Percutaneous toxicity  Systemic toxic effects produced as a result of a substance being absorbed across the skin. 
PERDIEM  By the Day 
Perils of the Sea  Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean trans- port. 
Period business  Deals which involve transfer of merchandise or delivery of service (transportation, for instance) from seller to buyer over a stretch of time. See term deal and time charter. 
Permanent Shore Facility  Any vessel which has been decommissioned as a non floating permanent facility 
Peroxide Value  Fats consist of saturated and unsaturated acids. The unsaturated acids are susceptible to oxidation, that is oxygen, can add to the fatty chain to form peroxides or hydroperoxides. The peroxide value is a measure of the amount of these products. It is usually expressed as the milli-equivalents of peroxide-oxygen combined per kilogram of fat. The determination of peroxides is based primarily on their ability to liberate iodine from potassium iodide in glacial acetic acid followed by titration of the liberated iodine with sodium thiosulphate using starch as indicator. 
PES  Unsaturated Polyester Resins 
PET  Polyethylene terephthalate. PET is derived from xylene and is one of the most widely used industrial polyesters. It is used in lightweight, recyclable soft drink bottles, as fibers in clothing, as a filling for anoraks and duvets, in car tyre cords and conveyor belts. It can also be made into a film that is used in video and audio tapes and x-ray films. 
Petrochemical  An organic compound that has been derived from petroleum or natural gas. There are almost 200 chemicals that can be so described and they include many simple hydrocarbons (e.g. methane, ethane), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. benzene, toluene), naphthenes and several of their derivatives. 
Petroleum  A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, unfinished oils, petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and non-hydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products. See crude oil. 
PFAD  Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. It is a term used specifically for the by-product obtained from palm oil refined by steam distillation (physical refining). PFAD contains free fatty acid (major component) and a small amount of unsaponifiable material and neutral oil, including mono and diglycerides. PFAD has been used to partially substitute some beef tallows in the production of laundry soap. 
PFD  Personal Floatation Device 
PFG  Piracy Focus Group 
PFSA  Port Facility Security Assessment 
PFSO  Petroleum Floating Storage Offloading or Port Facility Security Officer 
PFSP  Port Facility Security Plan 
PFT  Per freight ton 
PG  Persian Gulf (now AG) 
PGEE  Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether. 
PGEEA  Propylene Glycol Ethyl Ether Acetate 
PGEP  Propylene Glycol Ethers Panel (USA) 
PGH  Per Geared Hatch 
PGME  Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether 
PGMEA  Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate 
PGO  This acronym designates two different intermediates. See process gasoil and pyrolysis gasoil. 
pH  A measure of acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 1 to 14. 1 is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral and 14 is strongly alkaline 
PHC  Port handling charges 
PHD  Per hatch day 
Phenanthrene  Phenanthrene is a crystalline polycyclic hydrocarbon isomeric to Anthracene. It is distilled from coal tar and is found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wood preservatives and as carbon black feedstocks.  
Phenol  Phenol is an aromatic alcohol mainly used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. It essentially serves as a raw material for the production of bisphenol A, phenolic resins, alkylphenols and caprolactam. 
Phenolic resin  Phenolic resins are manufactured from phenol. They are used in wood products and molding powders applications, and also have a wide range of applications on the electrical, mechanical and decorative markets, in the automotive industry, in building and construction, in thermal insulation products and in foundry industry products. 
PHIL  Philippines 
PHO  Port health officer 
Phosphatides  These are lipids which contain combined phosphoric acid in their chemical composition. Phosphatides (or phospholipids) are important structural and functional constituents of the membranes of biological tissue and are also the major constituent of the gums of unprocessed oils and fats. The residual phosphatides in the crude oil have to be removed by pretreatment (degumming and/or neutralisation) and earth adsorption in the first stages of refining. 
Phosphorus  Phosphorus is a chemical element which has an important functional role in the phospholipid molecule. During the refining of oils and fats, it is important to remove the phosphorus before high temperature treatment in the deodoriser. Therefore, analysis of phosphorus provides useful information to the technologist. The analysis is usually carried out by a colour reaction after charring and ashing the oil sample or, alternatively, in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. To convert phosphorus to phospholipids, a multiplication factor of 25 to 30 is used. 
Photosensitizer  A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing skin sensitization 
Phototoxic  A substance which is converted in the skin circulation by light into a derivative capable of causing local irritation 
PHPD  Per Hatch Per Day 
Phthalate  Phthalates, or phthalate esters, are manufactured by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with one of a variety of alcohols ranging from methanol to tridecanol. They are predominantly used as plasticizers to soften the popular plastic PVC and to a lesser extent in non-PVC applications such as paints, rubber products, adhesives and some cosmetics. 
Physical Hazard  A physical hazard is one in which harm could be caused to humans or wildlife as a consequence of the physical properties of chemical, e.g., stickiness or viscosity 
Physical Refining  In simple terms, physical refining may be defined as free fatty acid removal by the action of high temperature, high vacuum and with live steam applied directly to the oil. Physical refining, also frequently referred to as ""steam refining"", may more accurately be described as distillative deacidification. This process normally precedes deodorisation within the same unit. 
Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate  A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to satisfy import regulations of foreign countries; indicates that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and found free from harmful pests and plant diseases. 
PIAT  Petrochemical Industry Association of Taiwan 
PIC  Person in charge 
Pickling  A chemical or electrochemical method of removing mill scale, rust and similar coating from steel 
Pickling bath  Solution used for pickling. The pickling bath is normally composed of acids, but can in electrolytic pickling consistent of a salt solution 
Pickup  The act of calling for freight by truck at the consignor’s shipping platform. 
Pier  The structure perpendicular to the shoreline to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo. 
Pier–to–House  A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal, thence to the consignee’s facility. 
Pier–to–Pier  Containers loaded at port of loading and discharged at port of destination. 
Pigging  At any bulking installation loading, unloading and other pumping lines are used interchangeably for different types of oils or different products of the same oil. The oil left behind in any pipeline after the pumping operation could be as much as 5-10 tonnes, depending upon the length and diameter of pipeline. In order to recover the oil fully and to avoid contamination with other oils, the cleaning operation of the internal surface of the pipeline known as ""pigging"" is carried out. This is done by blowing ""pigs"" through pipelines by compressed air or nitrogen. 
Piggy Packer  A mobile container–handling crane used to load/unload containers to/from railcars. 
Piggyback  A transportation arrangement in which truck trailers with their loads are moved by train to a destination. Also known as Rail Pigs. 
PIH  Poison Inhalation Hazard. Term used to describe gases and volatile liquids that are toxic when inhaled. 
Pile Dike  A dike constructed of a group of piles braced and lashed together along a riverbank 
Pile Driving Vessel  A vessel equipped for pile driving operations 
Pilot Vessel  A vessel from which pilots operate 
Pilotage  Process of piloting a ship. 
PIOPIC  P & I Oil Pollution Indemnity Clause 
Pipe Burying Vessel  A vessel equipped to carry small stones and aggregates and to deliver them via a flexible fall pipe system to bury pipes and cables on the sea bed 
Pipe Carrier  A platform supply ship equipped with increased scantlings & longer deck space for the transportation of pipes 
Pipe Down  Means stop talking and be quiet. The Pipe Down was the last signal from the Bosun's pipe each day which meant "lights out" and "silence". 
Pipe Layer  A vessel primarily equipped to lay solid or flexible pipes on the sea bed 
Pipe Layer Crane Vessel  A pipe layer also equipped with a large crane or derrick 
Pipe layer Platform, jack up  A jack up offshore pipe layer platform 
Pipe layer Platform, semi submersible  A semi submersible offshore pipe layer platform 
Pipeline  Line of pipe equipped with pumps and valves and other control devices for moving liquids and gases. It is one of the main modes of transport for many chemicals, including olefins, the main building blocks of the petrochemical industry. 
Pipestill  A traditional industry name for crude distillation units. The term generally applies to atmospheric stills. "Vacuum pipestill," used infrequently, refers to vacuum distillation units. 
Pit  A corroded hollow in a metal surface, caused by localized corrosion (pitting) 
Pitching  Ship Stability: is when the vessel rotates about the transverse (side-to-side) axis 
PITT  Petroleum Institute of Thailand 
Pitting corrosion  Localized corrosion resulting in pits, i.e. cavities extending from the surface into the metal 
Pitting initiation potential  Lowest value of a corrosion potential at which pit initiation is possible in a passive surface in a given corrosive environment 
PKD  Partially knocked down 
PKGE  Package 
PL  Protectively Located spaces (Marpol 13g) 
Place of Delivery  Place where cargo leaves the care and custody of carrier. 
Place of Receipt  Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier. 
Plastic  Any of numerous synthetic materials that consist of giant molecules called polymers, with extremely long chains of repeating units derived from short molecules. Plastics can be formed into products by molding or otherwise shaping. The two major divisions of plastics are the thermosetting resins and thermoplastic resins. Raw materials for plastics include coal and cellulose, but by far the chief source is petroleum. Because of their easy manipulation, economical manufacture, low specific gravity, and resistance to corrosion, plastics have replaced metal, wood, glass, and other materials in many applications. An immense array of plastic industrial and consumer goods is available. 
Plasticize  The process of creating a solid crystal structure in a fat or oil product resulting in a smooth appearance and firm consistency. 
Plasticizer  A plasticizer is a substance which when added to a material, usually a plastic, makes it flexible, resilient and easier to handle. Modern plasticizers are manmade organic chemicals; the majority of which are esters, such as adipates and phthalates. They are major components that determine the physical properties of polymer products. There are more than 300 different types of plasticizers; the most commonly used are phthalates. 
PlasticsEurope  Plastics Manufacturers Association, the plastics programme of Cefic. 
Platform Supply Ship  A vessel for the transportation of stores and goods to offshore platforms on an open deck, typically at the stern. May also be fitted with specialist under deck tanks for water, cement and/or drilling mud 
PLC  Public Limited Company 
PLEM  Pipeline End Manifold 
Plimsoll  A Plimsoll line or mark shows the safe 'freeboard' (distance from water to weather deck). There are 6 load lines as follows:Tropical Fresh, Fresh, Tropical, Summer, Winter, Winter North Atlantic. 
Plimsoll Mark  A series of horizontal lines, corresponding to the seasons of the year and fresh or saltwater, painted on the outside of a ship marking the level which must remain above the surface of the water for the vessel’s stability. 
PLS  Please 
PLT  Per Long Ton 
PLTC  Port liner term charge 
PM  Per month or Afternoon 
PMMA  Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is made from methyl methacrylate and is mainly used in the construction industry, lighting applications, signs, automotive and related areas, electronics and consumer-ware. 
PMO  Passing Muscat outbound 
PMQS  Provided minimum quantity supplied 
PMRC  APPE Petrochemicals Market Research Committee. APPE is a major group within the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
PMT  Per Metric Ton 
PO  Propylene Oxide. A petrochemical used as a monomer in polymer production and as an intermediate in the synthesis of other substances. Propylene oxide is used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of polyurethane foam, in propylene glycol and in other products used in specialty resins and solvents. 
PO-PO  Push-on/push-off 
POA  Place of acceptance 
POB  Pilot On Board or Port Office Box 
POC  Port of call 
POD  Paid On delivery or Port of Discharge or Proof of Delivery 
Point of Origin  The place at which a shipment is received by a carrier from the shipper. 
Poise  The unit of absolute viscosity. The trade often uses centipoises. One poise equals 100 centipoises. 
POL  Petroleum, oil and lube Or Port of Loading 
Polar  See Miscible 
Pollution Control Vessel  A vessel equipped for the primary function of pollution control. Typical types include oil spill recovery vessel and a pollution and debris collector 
Polyacrylate  A family of thermoplastic engineering resins made by the polymerization of an acrylic compound such as methyl methacrylate. 
Polycarbonate resins  Polycarbonate resins, derived from bisphenol A, are used for structural parts, impact resistant glazing, street-light bulbs, household appliance parts, components of electrical/electronic devices, automotive applications, reusable bottles, and food and drink containers. It is also a building block used to make epoxy resins for coatings, electrical laminants, composites and adhesives. 
Polycarbonates  Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastics.They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed; as such, these plastics are very widely used in modern manufacturing. Polycarbonate is becoming more common in housewares as well as laboratories and in industry. It is often used to create protective features, for example in banks as well as vandal-proof windows and lighting lenses for many buildings 
Polyester  Any of a group of polymers that consist basically of repeated units of an ester and are used especially in making fibers or plastics. Polyesters can be made into woven and knitted fabrics, either alone or blended with other fibers; they also have industrial applications such as ropes, filters, conveyor belts, and tyre cords.  
Polyethylene  A polymer of ethylene, especially any of various lightweight thermoplastics that are resistant to chemicals and moisture, have good insulating properties, and are used especially in packaging and insulation. 
Polyisobutylene  Polyisobutylene is a synthetic rubber, or elastomer. It is special because it is that only rubber that is gas impermeable, that is, it is the only rubber which can hold air for long periods of time. Polyisobutylene, sometimes called butyl rubber is a vinyl polymer, and is very similar to polyethylene and polypropylene in structure. 
Polymer  Polymer is derived from the Greek word poly meaning many while the term monomer is derived from mono meaning one. When identical simple molecules (monomers) come together and link up in a chain-like fashion they form a polymer. Polymers can be short chains of only a few dozen units, or long chains with millions of units. The chemical reaction that forms a polymer is called polymerization. There are natural polymers (often referred to as biopolymers) such as cellulose, rubber and DNA, and synthetic polymers such as polyethylene, nylon and PVC. 
Polymer  A strand of monomers. By [Definition], it takes five or more of these combining units to make a polymer. Shorter chains have individual names (dimer, trimer, and tetramer). Most familiar synthetic polymers, plastics like polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyvinyl chloride for instance, contain a huge number of monomers--practically too many to count. 
Polymerisation  Tank cleaning: The initial wash of products that tend to polymerise should be carried out with cold (ambient) water. Washing with hot water may result in polimeric residues being left in tanks and lines, which are very difficult to remove. 
Polymerise  The bonding of similar molecules into long chains or branched structures. 
Polymorphism  The property of fat molecules to exist in multiple crystalline structures; identified as alpha, beta and beta prime. 
Polyol  This is an organic molecule with three or more alcohol groups attached. The correct chemical term for an alcohol group is a hydroxy group with the combination of one oxygen attached to one hydrogen (OH). 
Polyolefin  The collective name given to those polymers that are made from the lower olefins: ethylene, propylene, butylene and isoprene. The polyolefins are thermoplastic polymers. 
Polypropylene  Any of various thermoplastic plastics or fibers that are polymers of propylene. Polypropylene can be made into fibers, where it is a major constituent in fabrics for home furnishings such as upholstery and carpets. Numerous industrial end uses include rope and cordage, disposable non-woven fabrics for diapers and medical applications. As a plastic, polypropylene is moulded into bottles for foods and personal care products, appliance housings, dishwasher-proof food containers, toys, automobile battery casings, and outdoor furniture. 
Polystyrene  A solid plastic made from polymerized styrene and used in a wide variety of everyday applications, from coffee cups through to CD jewel boxes.. 
Polyurethane  A synthetic compound derived from toluene, belonging to the family of organic polymers. Polyurethanes are used to make the foam in furniture, mattresses, car seats, building insulation, coatings for floors and furniture and refrigerators. They are also used in artificial sports tracks, jogging shoes, and in roller blade wheels. 
Pomerene Act  U.S. federal law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties for issuing B/L’s containing false data include monetary fines and/or imprisonment. Also known as (U.S.) Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916. 
PONA  A breakdown of the kind of molecules which compose a hydrocarbon mixture. The trade uses PONA most frequently to describe naphthas. See paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. All hydrocarbons fall into one of these four categories. The feedstock trade characterizes naphthas by what percentage of each kind of molecule they contain. A PONA test determines the composition of a particular cargo or stream. 
Pontoon (Function Unknown)  A non propelled pontoon whose function is unknown 
Pool Agreement  An agreement between a number of persons who have the right (because they are bareboat or time charterers, so disponent owners) to exploit the earning capacity of similar ships to co-operate in the Commercial Management and Commercial Operation of (typically) all such ships controlled by them (whilst each retaining any responsibility which they may have for Technical Operation). 
Pooped  The poop is the stern section of a ship. To be pooped is to be swamped by a high, following sea 
POPS  Purchase Options 
POR  Port of Refuge or Port of Registry 
Port  Left side of a ship as perceived when facing toward the front (bow). Also refers to a shore facility where ships dock to be loaded and unloaded. 
Port  PORT shall mean any area where vessels load or discharge cargo and shall include, but not be limited to, berths, wharves, anchorages, buoys and offshore facilities as well as places outside the legal, fiscal or administrative area where vessels are ordered to wait for their turn no matter the distance from that area. 
Port Facility Security Officer  Is the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and mainte- nance of the port facility security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security officers. 
Port Facility Security Plan  Is a plan developed to ensure the application of measures designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units and ship’s stores within the port facility from the risks of a security incident. 
Port of Call  Port where a ship discharges or receives traffic. 
Port of Entry  Port where cargo is unloaded and enters a country. 
Port of Exit  Place where cargo is loaded and leaves a country. 
Port Security  It is the defense, law and treaty enforcement, and counterterrorism activities that fall within the port and maritime domain. It includes the protection of the seaports themselves, the protection and in- spection of the cargo moving through the ports, and maritime security. 
Port Security Grant Program (PSGP)  As a result of the Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, fiscal year grant funding is provided annually to the Nation’s most at–risk seaports for physical security enhancements to be used in the protection of critical port infrastructure from terrorism. PSGP funds help ports enhance their risk management capabilities, domain awareness, training and exercises, and capabilities to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from attacks involving improvised explosive devices and other non–conventional weapons. 
Port State Inspection  An inspection of a vessel carried out by the national marine authority of the Country in which the vessel is visiting. 
POSH - Port out, Starboard home  A popular theory holds that the term Posh is derived from the initials of “Port Out, Starboard Home,” the cooler, and thus more expensive, side of ships traveling between England and India in the mid-19th century. The acronym POSH was supposedly stamped on the tickets of first-class passengers traveling on that side of ships owned by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. 
Positional Isomer  An isomer differing in the location of a double bond. 
POSN  Position 
Post Curing  The input of heat to a coating after the initial cure has taken place to enhance the chemical resistance 
Post-Fixture Operations  Voyage planning operations that take place after a voyage has been contracted, or "fixed". 
Post-Panamax Vessel  a fully cellular containership that can carry more than 4,000 TEUs; a vessel that is larger than the original Panama Canal dimensions, but will fit under the Panama Canal expansion 
Posted price  The published or list price of crude and petroleum products, sometimes shortened to "posting." Many companies use this term as a name for the price applied to their contract business. In some cases, it means the commodity's base price--the starting figure subject to adjustments such as competitive allowances, volume discounts, equity compensation, and so forth. Most of the time sellers post prices. But in some cases, such as the US domestic crude market, buyers post what they will pay. 
POT (able)  POTable water 
Pour point  The temperature where a hydrocarbon mixture becomes too thick to flow. The industry uses this property to assure that gasoil will fuel furnaces and diesel engines properly during cold weather. In particularly harsh climates, pour point indicates how warm to keep distillate by artificial means. The trade also quotes pour points for residue and crude. In these cases, the specification indicated whether the oil needs heating for proper handling and storage. 
Pour point  The lowest temperature at which commodity will continue to flow when it is cooled under specified standard conditions. 
Powder Carrier  A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of fine powders such as fly ash. There are no weather deck hatches 
PP  Per Procurationem (on behalf of) or Picked Ports 
PP(D)  Prepaid 
PPB  Parts per billion. A thousand times less than a ppm. An expression for tiny concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. 
ppb  Parts by weight per billion parts 
Ppd  Prepaid: Freight charges paid by the consignor (shipper) prior to the release of the bills of lading by the car- rier. 
PPE  Personnel Protective Equipment 
PPI  Principal Party of Interest (see USPPI and FPPI). 
PPM  Parts per million. A convenient expression for very small concentrations of one ingredient (usually a contaminent) in a mixture. One milligram per kilogram equals one weight ppm. So does 1 gram in a metric ton. The industry does not regularly use volume ppm, but could if it had a reason. 
PPM  Parts Per Million 
PPOSE  Propose 
PPP  Public Private Partnership 
PPS or PU  Pumps 
PPSE  Propose 
PPSE or PPROPOSE  Please Propose 
PPT  Prompt.. Immediate availability of the cargo or vessel offered in the charter party or any other contract. Similar to Spot. 
PPUK  Picked ports of U.K 
PQ  Province of Quebec 
PR  Polski Rajestr Statkow (polish register) 
PR  Pro-Rata 
PRAC  Primary Response Action Contractor 
Pratique  License or permission to use a port 
Pratique Certificate  Lifts temporary quarantine of a vessel; granted pratique by Health Officer. 
PRC  People's Republic of China 
PRE  Pitting Resistance Equivalent. An empirical formula used to predict the resistance of stainless steels to pitting corrosion. Various formulas are used but the most common is PRE=%Cr+3.3%Mo+16%N 
Pre–cooling  A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled and transported through to destination with- out opening the doors. 
Precursor  A stream or molecule transformed into a specific product by a reaction or other processing. Refiners, for instance, regard naphthenes as aromatics precursors because they readily become aromatics in reformers. 
PREF  Prefer/Preferable/Preferably 
PREP  National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program 
Preparation  A preparation is a mixture or a solution composed of two or more substances. This term is used in the European legislation. 
Press into Service  The British navy filled their ships' crew quotas by kidnapping men off the streets and forcing them into service. This was called Impressment and was done by Press Gangs. 
Pressuring agent  Butanes used to control the vapor pressure of finished gasoline. Usually butane's price, relative to other components' and finished gasolines. gives refiners incentive to put as much butane as possible in their blends. During the winter months, when RVP specifications rise, motor gasoline can contain more butane. 
PRIV  Private 
Pro Forma  A Latin term meaning “For the sake of form.” 
Pro Forma Invoice  An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and specifications (weight, size, etc.). 
Pro Rata  A Latin term meaning “In proportion.” 
PROBO  Product-Bulk-Oil carriers. See OBO. 
PROBO  Product/Bulk/Ore Carrier 
PROCESS GASOIL  A synonym for vacuum gasoil. Processing arrangement: See TOLL PROCESSING Also called processing deals. 
Processes  Basic oleochemicals are producted primarily through splitting, distillation, fractionation, separation, hydrogenation, methylation and hydrophilisation. Derivatives of basic oleochemicals are produced mainly through amidation, chlorination, dimerisation, epoxidation, ethoxylation, quarternisation, sulfation, sulfonation, transesterification and saponification. 
Producers  Companies, often state organizations, which own oil wells and the crude which flows from them. This category includes a large number of private enterprises. Integrated oil companies and specialists called independent producers develop much of the world's crude supply. But, as a matter of custom, the industry tends to think not of them but of oil exporting nations when speaking of producers. Other names, such as equity holders, leaseholders, or even equity producers, distinguish these private, commercial organizations. They need a separate category because they must buy the oil they develop, through lease fees, royalties, cash, production sharing, or other arrangements, from whoever has sovereign right to it. 
Product  Refined petroleum product such as gasoline, kerosene or fuel oil. 
Product Name  Cargo name listed in Chapter 17 or 18 in the IBC Code or in the latest edition of MEPC.2/Circ. or as per a Tripartite Agreement. This is the name that should be indicated on the shipping document. 
Product Stewardship  Product Stewardship is the responsible and ethical management of the health, safety and environmental aspects of a product throughout its total life cycle. Product Stewardship is Responsible Care applied to products. More… 
Product Tanker  A tanker built to comply with Annex 1 of Marpol 73/78 for the carriage of oil and engaged in the trade of carrying oil other than crude oil. This includes both clean and black products. 
Production  Stage in the industry where oil and gas are extracted and prepared for transport. 
Production Platform, jack up  A jack up offshore production platform 
Production Platform, semi submersible  A semi submersible offshore production Platform  
Production Testing Vessel  A vessel primarily equipped for testing the quality and amount of oil produced by a well 
Products (Oil)  Oil which has been produced as the direct result of a refining process. The resultant product may be Clean Petroleum Products - CPP (Naptha, Gasoline, Gas Oil, Base Oils etc. Or Dirty Petroleum Products - DPP (Fuel Oils etc.) 
Products Tank Barge, non propelled  A non propelled tank barge for the carriage of oil products 
Products Tanker   A tanker for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
Products Tanker Barge, propelled  A self propelled tanker barge for the bulk carriage of refined petroleum products, either clean or dirty 
Products with a high melting Point  Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at a temperature of 15-20 C above the melting point. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the tank to be cleaned. During cleaning special attention must be given to liquid and vapor line systems to avoid freezing/solidification at cold line segments. Washing as soon as possible after discharge is recommended.  
Products with a high viscosity  Tank cleaning: These products should be washed at higher temperatures. In general the viscosity is closely related to the temperature and will decrease at higher temperatures. During washing there should be no ballast water or cold cargoes adjacent to the tank to be cleaned. Washing as soon as possible after discharge is recommended.  
Project Rate  Single tariff item, established to move multiple commodities needed for a specified project, usually construction. 
Propane  A colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon. It is separated in large quantities from natural gas, light crude oil, and oil-refinery gases and is commercially available as liquefied propane or as a major constituent of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). As with ethane, propane is an important raw material for the ethylene petrochemical industry. The decomposition of propane in hot tubes to form ethylene also yields another important product, propylene. 
Propene  See Propylene 
Propylene  Also called propene, a colorless, flammable, gaseous hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum; large quantities of propylene are used in the manufacture of resins, fibers, and plastics (see polyolefins), and numerous other chemical products. 
Propylene  Three-carbon olefin produced in refineries by catalytic crackers and in petrochemical plants by steam crackers. Refiners process part of their supply into motor gasoline blendstock, particularly alkylate. Some refinery material and that from steam crackers becomes plastic, glue, and other synthetic products. 
Propylene glycol  Generic term for a family of propylene glycols, the most important of which is monopropylene glycol.  
Propylene glycol ethers  Propylene glycol ethers are formed from the base catalyzed reaction of propylene oxide with alcohols like methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol or phenol. For further information please see http://www.ethers-de-glycol.org 
Propylene glycol ethers acetates  Glycol ether acetates are clear liquids that often have a pleasant, fruity odor. For further information please see http://www.ethers-de-glycol.org 
Protected Waters  an area of sheltered waters presenting no special hazards such as most rivers, harbours and lakes, designated by the Administration for the operation of small vessels and where not so designated means an area not more than 3 miles from a safe haven. 
Protein  A naturally occurring combination of amino acids, containing the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulphur. One of the essential constituents of all living things and of the diet of animals and man. 
PRT  Port 
PS  Port side 
PSC  Port state control. Is the system whereby the authorities of a State responsible for marine safety are empowered to inspect vessels entering its ports, even if they do not fly the flag of that State, in order to identify ships not complying with applicable norms, especially with respect to safety. Port State Control is typically governed by an international agreement, such as the Paris Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). 
PSG  Passing 
PSG or PSSG  Passing 
PSI  Pounds Per Square Inch or Pre Shipment Inspection 
PSI  Pounds per square inch (lbsin2). A common unit of pressure particularly vapor pressure. Some folks express pressure specifications in kPa or bars. 1.0 lbin2 = 0.068947 bar = 6.8947 kPa 
PSIG  Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge 
PSIX  Port State Information Exchange (USCG
PSPC  Polystyrene Packaging Council (USA) 
PSR  Perils at Sea Revision 
PST  Pacific Standard Time; Per Short Ton 
PSV  Platform Supply Vessel -designed to supply offshore oil platforms 
PT  Port or Private Terms or Product Tanker 
pt B  Port bunkers 
PT or PTON  Per ton 
PTC  Ports & Terminal Committee 
PTO  Please turn over 
PTY  Proprietary 
Public Service Commission  A name usually given to a State body having control or regulation of public utilities. 
Publishing Agent  Person authorized by transportation lines to publish tariffs or rates, rules, and regulations for their account. 
PUFA  Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Fatty acids having two or more double bonds in their carbon chain. The most common poly-unsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. CH3 (CH2)4 CH = CH CH2 CH = CH(CH2)7 COOH Corn oil, sunflowerseed and soyabean oil are rich in poly-unsaturates. Poly-unsaturated fatty acids are recognised as more healthy than saturated fatty acids. 
Puigs  ""Pigs"" are used for cleaning pipelines. Hard pigs consist of several, usually three, discs of plastic on a central shaft. They are a close fit in the pipeline to be cleaned. They are pushed through by gas or air and evacuate any product ahead of them in the pipeline. They can also be fitted with wear compensating wire brushes when a more thorough pipe cleaning operation is required. Soft pigs consist of cylindrical plugs of foamed plastic, pushed through the pipeline in the same way. 
Pulp Carrier  A vessel designed for carrying paper pulp 
Pulp Temperature  Procedure where carrier tests the temperature of the internal flesh of refrigerated commodities to assure that the temperature at time of shipment conforms to prescribed temperature ranges. 
Pumping Platform  A platform dedicated to pumping operations 
Pup  A short semi–trailer used jointly with a dolly and another semi–trailer to create a twin trailer. 
Purplefinder  Tracks, monitors and reports on remote assets. PurpleFinder® uses satellite GPS in conjunction with satellite or land-based communication services to provide global, two-way, real-time, web-access to standard and exception-based asset position reporting, 
Pusher Tug  A vessel equipped to push cargo carrying barges and pontoons. May be articulated to work with specifically designed barge(s) 
PVC  Polyvinyl Chloride. A polymer of vinyl chloride used to make a diverse range of cost-effective products with various levels of technical performance suited to a wide range of applications. Many of these PVC products are used everyday and include everything from medical devices such as medical tubing and blood bags, to footwear, electrical cables; packaging, stationery, and toys. 
PW  Packed weight or Piece weight 
PWH  Per Workable Hatch 
PWHD  Per Workable Hatch Day 
PWWD  Per Weather Working day 
PX  Pump Room (OCIMF acronym) 
PY  Py-gas 
Pygas  An abbreviation of pyrolysis gasoline. 
Pygas  Pyrolisis Gasoline 
Pyrolisis gasoline  Pyrolysis Gasoline, or Pygas, is a naphtha-range product with a high aromatic content, used either for gasoline blending or as a feedstock for a BTX extraction unit. Pygas is produced in an ethylene plant that processes butane, naphtha or gasoil. 
Pyrolysis  Application of heat to change molecular structure. The oil industry ordinarily reserves this term for processes which break hydrocarbons without the assistance of a catalyst, such as steam cracking and cooking. 
Pyrolysis gasoil  The distillate fuel oil produced by a heavy liquids steam cracker. This material usually finds use as a distillate blendstock. 
Pyrolysis gasoline  The aromatics-rich naphtha-range stream produced in sizeable quantities by an ethylene plant when it cracks butane, naphtha, or gasoil. Pygas resembles reformate. It can serve as a high-octane blendstock for motor gasoline or as a feedstock for an aromatics extraction unit. 
Pyrophoric  A substance which ignites spontaneously upon exposure to air (or oxygen). 
 


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