Abbreviations & Definitions
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I.M.C.  Lloyd''s Machinery Certificate 
I.W.L.  Institute Warranty Limits 
I.W.L. or IWL  Institute Warranty Limits 
I/A  Independent Action: The right of a conference member to publish a rate of tariff rule that departs from the Agreement’s common rate or rule. 
I/F  Insufficient funds 
I/O  In and/or over (stowage of cargo under or on deck) or Instead Of 
IAC  In all case 
IACS  International Association of Classification Societies. An association of major classification societies whose principal goal is the improvement of standards of safety at sea. 
IAMSAR  International and Aeronautical Search and Rescue Manual (IMO) 
IAPH  International Association of Ports and Harbors 
IARC  International Agency for Research on Cancer 
IATA  International Air Transport Association 
IAW  In Accordance With 
IB.  Ibidem (in the same place) 
IBA  Isobutyl Alcohol = Isobutanol 
IBC  Intermediate bulk carrier or International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IMO) 
IBC Code  International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk 
IBNR  Incurred but not reported 
IBP  Initial boiling point of a mixture of liquids 
IBP  Initial boiling point. 
IC  Incident Commander 
IC&C  Invoice cost and charges 
ICA  Inter Club Agreement 
ICC  International Chamber of Commerce or International Chamber of Shipping or Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers or Institute Cargo Clause or Interstate Commerce Commision 
ICCA  International Council of Chemical Associations  
ICD  Inland clearance depot 
Icebreaker  A vessel specifically constructed to clear a passage through ice for other vessels. Typically has a high power rating, strengthening and a specially designed bow  
Icebreaker/Research  An icebreaker additionally fitted with laboratories for research 
ICES  International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 
ICHCA  International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association 
ICS  Incident Command System. An organized approach to control and manage operations at an emergency incident. The OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response regulations (29 CFR 1910.120(q)(3)(ii)) require that an ICS be implemented by the senior emergency response official on the scene. See Appendix C, Section 6, of the OSHA rule for more information on ICS. 
ICS  International Chamber of Shipping 
ICS  Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers 
ICW  In connection with 
ID  Import duty or Inside diameter 
IDL  International Date Line 
IE  Stands for “Immediate Exit.” In the U.S., Customs IE Form is used when goods are brought into the U.S. and are to be immediately re–exported without being transported within the U.S. 
IFF  Institute of Freight Forwarders 
IFO  Intermediate fuel oil 
IG  Inert Gas 
IGC  International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquified Gases in Bulk (IMO) 
IGM  Import general manifest 
Ignition source  Includes heat, sparks, flames, static electricity and friction. Ignition sources should always be eliminated. 
IGS  Inert Gas System 
IGS  Inert gas system. If tankships let air fill their tanks as they pump out oil, an explosive mixture of hydrocarbon vapor and oxygen can form. Any spark, such as static electricity, could cause catastrophe. To eliminate this danger, modern vessels vent their tanks with gas which will not support combustion. Some use oxygen-depleted exhaust from the ship's engines. The most sophisticated systems fill empty space in tanks with nitrogen. 
IHP  Indicated Horse Power 
ILA  International Longshoremen's Association 
ILG  Industry Lifeboat Group 
Illuminating kerosene  see BURNING KEROSENE 
ILO  International Labour Organization 
ILOHC  In Lieu of Hold Cleaning 
ILOW  In Lieu of Weighing 
iMAS  integrated Marine Assurance System - BP's vetting system. 
IMB  International Maritime Bureau 
IMCO  Intergovernmental Maritime Consultitive Organisation 
IMDG  International Maritime Dangerous Goods (Code) 
IMDG CODE  International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code 
IMF  International Monetary Fund 
IMGS  International Medical Guide for Ships 
Immediate Exportation  An entry that allows foreign merchandise arriving at one port to be exported from the same port without the payment of duty. 
Immiscible  In this guidebook, means that material does not mix readily with water. 
Immunity  A thermodynamically stable condition 
Immunotoxic  Capable of causing injury to the immune system and to interfere with body defense mechanisms.  
IMO  International Maritime Organisation: A specialised agency of the United Nations based in London and dealing with maritime affairs. Originally formed to evolve international machinery to improve safety at sea IMO has now broadened its brief to include th 
IMO Ship Type  Ship type 1, 2 or 3 refers to the design of ship needed to carry a particular cargo depending on its environmental and safety profile. The designs are outlined in the IBC Code. Type 2(k) relates to the provision for Ship Type identified in column e of chapter 17 of the IBC Code that might be subject to regulation 4.1.3 of Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 
IMO Type 1  A type 1 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with very severe environmental and safety hazards which require maximum preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo. 
IMO Type 2  A type 2 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with appreciably severe environmental and safety hazards which require significant preventive measures to preclude an escape of such cargo. 
IMO Type 3  A type 3 ship is a chemical tanker intended to transport chapter 17 products with sufficiently severe environmental and safety hazards which require a moderate degree of containment to increase survival capability in a damaged condition. 
Impingement corrosion  See Erosion Corrosion 
Import  To receive goods from a foreign country. 
Import License  A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods. 
Impurities  This refers to insoluble extraneous matter found in oils and fats. It may consist of dirt and miscellaneous debris, mineral matter, nitrogenous materials of animal or vegetable origin and carbohydrate substances such as vegetable fibres. Impurities are determined by weighing the dry residue obtained after they are separated from the sample which has been dissolved in a specific solvent, usually petroleum ether. 
IMT  CMS -Incident Management Team 
IN &/OR OVER  Goods carried below or on deck 
In Bond  Cargo moving under Customs control where duty has not yet been paid. 
In Gate  The transaction or interchange that occurs at the time a container is received by a rail terminal or water port from another carrier. 
IN LIQ  In liquidation 
In the Offing  Currently means something is about to happen, as in - "There is a reorganization in the offing." From the 16th century usage meaning a good distance from shore, barely visible from land, as in - "We sighted a ship in the offing." 
In Transit  In transit, or in passage. 
In-line blending  The practice of pumping various motor gasoline components from their individual storage tanks into a single pipe and mixing them in the process. Gasoline made in such fashion generally is intended for bulk in shipment. Typically it flows directly aboard a vessel after blending. Refiners with limited capability to store a particular grade of gasoline frequently use this method. 
IN.  Inch (-es) 
Incentive Rate  A lower–than–usual tariff rate assessed because a shipper offers a greater volume than specified in the tariff. The incentive rate is assessed for that portion exceeding the normal volume. 
Incinerator  A vessel equipped for the (now illegal) incineration of waste material at sea 
INCL  Including 
INCLOT  Including Overtime 
INCLOT or IOT  Including Overtime 
INCO TERMS  Internaitonal Commercial Terms: A list of standard contract terms which specify the obligations for the delivery of goods in International Contracts particularly traded commodities. It is compiled and published the International Chamber of Commerce. 
INCOTERMS  The recognized abbreviation for the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Sale. These terms were last amended, effective July 1, 1990. 
IND  Independent or Indication 
Indemnity Bond  An agreement to hold a carrier harmless with regard to a liability. 
Independent Action  Setting rate within a conference tariff that is different from the rate(s) for the same items established by other conference members. 
Independent surveyors  The inspection and testing organizations hired by petroleum companies to determine how much and what quality of oil changed hands in performance on a deal. In the interest of impartiality, buyers and sellers usually share the cost of inspections. 
Independent Tariff  Any body of rate tariffs that are not part of an agreement or conference system. 
Indication  A suggestion given by a prospective buyer or seller of what he might do. Indications imply no commitments. At this level of discussions, folks can change their minds without serious consequences. 
INDO  Indonesia 
Inducement  Placing a port on a vessel’s itinerary because the volume of cargo offered at that port justifies the cost of routing the vessel. 
Inert Gas  The atmosphere introduced into the ullage space of a tank to reduce its oxygen content to 8% O2 or less in order to prevent ignition of the vapour or cargo. Inert gas on vessels is usually the cleaned products of combustion from a boiler or inert gas gen 
Inert Gas Blanketing  Inert gas, usually nitrogen, put in the ullage space in a pressurised tank to prevent air oxidation of the product. 
Inert Gas Processing Pontoon, non propelled  A non propelled pontoon used for the purpose of generating Inert Gas 
Infantry Landing Craft  A combat vessel with a bow ramp for landing or loading infantry 
INFO  Information 
Infrared Radiation  The visible light is only a small fraction of the electromagnetic waves. Waves with wavelength longer than the visible red are generally called infrared radiation. Infrared radiation is that section of the spectrum covering the range from the limit of the visible spectrum to the shortest microwave. Both infrared and ultraviolet spectra are useful in the analysis and identification of fats. 
Inherent Vice  An insurance term referring to any defect or other characteristic of a product that could result in dam- age to the product without external cause (for example, instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode spontaneously). Insurance policies may exclude inherent vice losses. 
Initial boiling point  The temperature where a natural material or fraction begins to boil. 
Inland Barge Tow  Towboats push barges on the nation's inland waterways loaded with materials and products that are the building blocks of America's economy - coal, grain, petroleum products, petrochemicals, fertilizers, sand, gravel, metal scrap, etc. One tow can be comprised of anywhere from one to 40 barges 
Inland Barges  Self-propelled barges or dumb barges employed in port areas, on inland waterways sheltered or estuarial waters, which are not classified as seagoing vessels, including tankers not covered by international convention. Inland barges may be regulated by local, national or regional regimes. 
Inland Bill Of Lading  An inland bill of lading allows the transporter to move goods across domestic land, via rail or truck. If the goods are to be shipped overseas, an addition document known as an "ocean bill of lading" is required. The inland bill only allows the materials to reach the shore, while the ocean bill allows its transport overseas. 
Inland Carrier  A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points. 
INMARSAT  International Maritime Satellite (organization): An international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. It operates a fleet of telecommunications satellites 
INNNGWB  If New York, not north of George Washington bridge 
Inorganic  Not based on a carbon structure eg caustic soda, phosphoric acid 
Inorganic  Inorganic is said of any substance in which two or more chemical elements other than carbon are combined. Every chemical is either inorganic or organic. 
INS  Integrated Navigation System 
INS  Insert or Insurance 
INSP  Inspection or Inspector 
Inspection Certificate  A certificate issued by an independent agent or firm attesting to the quality and/or quantity of the merchandise being shipped. Such a certificate is usually required in a letter of credit for commodity shipments. 
INST.  Instant or Present month 
INST.  Clauses oficially accepted by the Institute of clauses London Underwriters 
Installment Shipments  Successive shipments are permitted under letters of credit. Usually they must take place within a given period of time. 
Insulated Container  A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor, and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo. 
Insulated Container Tank  The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids. 
Insurance with Average–clause  This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to three percent or more of the in- sured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, or collides, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance, the word average describes partial damage or partial loss. 
Insurance, All–risk  This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit. 
Insurance, General–Average  In water transportation, the deliberate sacrifice of cargo to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo.Those sharing in the spared cargo proportionately cover the loss. 
Insurance, Particular Average  A Marine insurance term which refers to partial loss on an individual shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless of the balance of the cargo. Particular–average insurance can usually be obtained, but the loss must be in excess of a certain percentage of the insured value of the shipment, usually three to five percent, before a claim will be allowed by the company. 
Integrated oil companies  Organizations which find, produce, transport, and refine oil, and market oil products. Less complete enterprises concentrate on a part of this sequence. The industry calls its largest integrated companies the majors. 
INTERCARGO  International Association of Dry Cargo shipowners 
Interchange Point  A location where one carrier delivers freight to another carrier. 
Interchangeabililty  All fats have a common basic chemical structure, being triglycerides. However, because the fatty acids in combination vary, the physical properties of different fats are not identical. In general, liquid character is imparted by unsaturated acids and by short chain length saturated acids. Solid character is imparted by long chain saturated acids or by unsaturated acids in the transconfiguration. Since liquid oils can be changed by hydrogenation into solid fats, a substantial degree of interchangeability exists between the different products. This interchangeability is however limited. For example, it is not practicable to turn saturated (solid) acids in unsaturated (liquid). Also, the short chain saturated acids impart certain desirable qualities which cannot be obtained otherwise. Nonetheless, interchangeability is an important factor in determining the market price relationship between various oils. 
Intercoastal  Water service between two coasts; in the U.S., this usually refers to water service between the Atlantic and Pacific or Gulf Coasts. 
Intercrystalline Corrosion  Corrosion in or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal 
Interesterication   A term given to the production of esters by interaction of two esters in the presence of an alkaline or enzymatic catalyst. 
Interesterification  Interesterification modifies the natural distribution of the fatty acids in fats and oils. By the use of a catalyst the combined fatty acids are induced to become detached from their original glycerol molecule and reattached in a random manner (random interesterification). A modification of this process is to lower the temperature until some of the newly formed high melting glycerides crystallise out (directed interesterification). The processes result in a different triglyceride composition which, in turn, leads to physical properties different from the native fats or oils. The products may be more useful for making margarine, vanaspati and shortening. 
INTERGRAF  International Confederation of Printing and Allied Industries 
Intergranular corrosion  Corrosion in or adjacent to the grain boundaries of a metal 
Interior Channel  The access channel system inside a water body that connects the entrance channel (inlet or bar) to a port or harbor with appropriate ship facilities. Interior channels are usually located to provide some protection from waves and weather and are located in bays, estuaries, or rivers (EM 1110-2-1613). 
Interline Freight  Freight moving from origin to destination over the Freight lines of two or more transportation car- riers. 
Intermediate  A partially refined petroleum stream. Such materials require further processing to make finished products. Various intermediates sell as feedstocks. The industry also uses this word as an adjective to designate a medium score on some quality ranking--between sweet and sour, for instance. 
Intermediate  A chemical intermediate is any substance generated by one step in a synthetic process and used for the succeeding step. 
Intermediate crude  Petroleum with sulfur content between sweet and sour--often defined as between 0.5 and 1.0 weight percent sulfur. 
Intermediate Point  A point located en route between two other points. 
INTERMODAL  Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey. 
International Ship and Port Security Code (ISPS)  It is an amendment to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention (1974/1988) on minimum security arrangements for ships, ports and government agencies. Having come into force in 2004, it prescribes responsibilities to governments, shipping companies, shipboard personnel, and port/ facility personnel to “detect security threats and take preventative measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade.” 
INTERTANKO  The International Association of Independent Tanker Owners: An international organisation based in London whose aim is to represent the views of its members at International Forums. 
INTN  Intention 
INV  Invoice 
Invoice  An itemized list of goods shipped to a buyer, stating quantities, prices, shipping charges, etc. 
Inward Foreign Manifest (IFM)  A complete listing of all cargo entering the country of discharge. Required at all world ports and is the primary source of cargo control, against which duty is assessed by the receiving country. 
Iodine Value  Iodine value is a measure of the total number of unsaturated double bonds present in an oil. Determination of iodine value involves the addition of an excess of halogen to the sample, reaction of the excess halogen with potassium iodide and titration of liberated iodine with standard sodium thiosulphate using starch solution as the indicator. Of the many procedures available, the most widely used are the Wijs (iodine monochloride) and Hanus (iodine) methods. 
IOM  Isle of Man 
IOP  Irrespecitve of percentage 
IOPC  International Oil Pollution Compensation (fund) 
IOPP  International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate 
IOPPC  International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate 
IOR  Indian Ocean Region 
IOU  I owe you 
IPA  Intermediate Pressure Ahead 
IPA  Isopropyl Acetate 
IPA  Isopropyl Alcohol 
IPF  Intaken piled fathorn 
IPI  Inland Point Intermodal: Refers to inland points (non–ports) that can be served by carriers on a through bill of lading. 
IPIF  International Petrochemical Information Forum 
IPOC  Initial Point of Contact 
IPP NLS  International Pollution Prevention Noxious Liquid Substance Certificate 
IPPC  EU Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (see Best Available Techniques) 
IPS  Intermediate Pressure astern 
IPSO FACTO  By the fact itself 
IRD  Inland rail depot 
IRO  In respect of 
Iron  Iron acts as a catalyst in oxidation processes and thus it is detrimental to the quality of oils and fats. Iron is a trace metal, its presence in vegetable oils is mainly due to contamination such as wear and tear of machinery during extraction and during transportation. The natural iron content of a crude oil can rise to 4 or 5 ppm due to milling processes, transport and storage. The normal iron content of fully refined oil is 0.1 ppm or less. However, contamination during transport occasionally causes substantial increases. 
Irrevocable Letter of Credit  Letter of credit in which the specified payment is guaranteed by the bank if all terms and conditions are met by the drawee and which cannot be revoked without joint agreement of both the buyer and the seller. 
Irritant  A substance that produces an irritating effect when it contacts the skin, eyes, nose or respiratory system. 
IRS  Indian Register of Shipping 
ISF  International Shipping Federation 
ISGOTT  International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals: A comprehensive guide to the safe conduct of all tanker and terminal cargo related operations 
ISIF  International Styrene Information Forum. For more information, click here. 
ISIS  Integrated Ship Inspection System (see CDI) 
ISLWG  International Shipping Legislation Working Group (UNCTAD) 
ISM  International Safety Management 
ISM Code  Provides an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. This is a regulatory requirement for shipping companies. 
ISM(C)  International Safety Management Code 
ISMC  International Safety Management Code 
ISO  Instead of or International Standard Organization 
ISO 14001  Provides standards on how to manage a company''s activities in a way that minimizes harm to the environment. 
ISO 9001  Provides standards any company can use to deliver good quality products or services. 
Isobutane  See Butane 
Isobutanol  Isobutanol is a colorless, flammable organic compound classified as an alcohol. As such, it is widely used as a solvent in chemical reactions and as a starting material for organic synthesis. 
Isobutyl acetate  Isobutyl acetate is a common solvent, produced from the esterification of isobutanol with acetic acid. 
Isobutylene  Isobutylene is used in organic synthesis and in the production of high octane aviation gasoline. Its main use is in the production of butyl rubber where it comprises 98% of the raw material used. 
Isomer  Compounds containing the same elements in the same proportions which can exist in more than one structural form, e.g. geometric, positional or cyclic. 
Isomer  One of two or more compounds of the same type and chemical formula but different configurations. For example two C4 paraffins, isobutane and normal butane have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms. But the carbons form a T shape in one and a straight line in the other. This difference gives each of the two isomers its own properties and uses. 
Isomer-Isomeric  Two or more substances that have identical molecular formulas but different molecular structures or configurations, and hence different properties, are called isomers. Isomers differ only in the arrangement of their component atoms. 
Isomerate  The motor gasoline blendstock made by a C5-C6 isomerization unit. 
Isomerisation  The chemical process by which a compound is transformed into any of its isomeric forms, i.e., forms with the same chemical composition but with different structure or configuration and, hence, generally with different physical and chemical properties. An example is the conversion of n-butane to its branched-chain isomer, isobutane, by heating the butane to 100° C or higher in the presence of a catalyst.  
Isomers  Materials having the same chemical formula but having different structures and properties. 
Isomerzation  A process which forces one isomer to become another. The most common application in the oil industry involves twisting linear paraffins into branched-chain form. Many refiners turn into isobutane, and a normal pentane hexane stream into an isopentaneisohexane mix. Some petrochemicals producers use an isomerization process to make para-xylene as possible from mixed xylenes. 
ISOPA  The European Isocyanate Producers Association, an affiliate of Cefic. 
Isoparaffins  Branched-chain saturate hydrocarbons. Any paraffin composed of four or more carbon atoms can have one or more isoparaffinic isomers. 
Isophorone  Isophorone is a clear liquid that can be dissolved in water. It is an industrial chemical used extensively as a solvent in some printing inks, paints, lacquers, adhesives, vinyl resins, copolymers, coatings, finishes, and pesticides, in addition to being used as a chemical intermediate. 
Isopropanol  Isopropanol is a major component of rubbing alcohols. Isopropanol is a secondary alcohol. It is one of the cheapest alcohols and has replaced ethanol for many uses because of its similar solvent properties. Isopropanol was formerly obtained largely by catalytic reduction of acetone ; oxidation of isopropanol is now the major source of acetone. 
Isopropyl acetate  Isopropyl Acetate is a fast evaporating, mild odor solvent that is miscible with most common organic solvents and has properties intermediate between ethyl and butyl acetates. Isopropyl acetate can be used as surfactant in cleaning fluids, coatings, coatings for automotive, coatings for plastic, nail care, printing inks, solvents for cosmetics and personal care, and solvents for fragrances. 
ISPS  International Ship and Port Facility Security 
ISPS CODE  International Ship and Port Facility Security Code 
ISSC  International Ship Security Certificate 
Issuing Bank  Bank that opens a straight or negotiable letter of credit and assumes the obligation to pay the bank or beneficiary if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit. 
Issuing Carrier  The carrier issuing transportation documents or publishing a tariff. 
ISTEC  Intertanko Technical Committee 
ISWG  Intersessional Working Group on Maritime Security 
IT  Immediate Transport: The document (prepared by the carrier) allows shipment to proceed from the port of entry in the U.S. to Customs clearing at the destination. The shipment clears Customs at its final destination. Also called an “In–Transit” Entry. 
ITC  International Tonnage Certificate 
ITF  International Transport Workers Fedration 
ITF  International Transportworkers Federation 
ITF or ITFW  International Transport Worker’s Federation 
ITOPF  International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation 
ITOSF  Informal Tanker Operator's Safety Forum 
IU  If Used 
IUATUC  If used actual time used to count 
IUATUTC  If Used, Actual Time Used To Count 
IUHATUTC  If Used, Half Actual Time Used To Count 
IUHTAUTC  If Used, Half Time Actually used to Count 
IV  Invoice value or increased value 
IVR  Rhine Barge Register: International Association for the representation of the mutual interests of the inland shipping and the insurance and for keeping the register of inland vessels in Europe. 
IWL  Institute Warranty Limits