Abbreviations & Definitions
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H AND M or H&M  Hull and Machinery 
H&M  Hull and machinery insurance 
H+M  Hull and machinery 
H-TYPE  Hakodate (vessel) type 
H.A. OR D.  Havre, Antwerp or Dunkirk 
H.S.A.  Hellenic Shipbrokers Association 
H/C  Held covered 
H/H  Hold/Hatch 
H/V  Hague Visby Rules 
H2S  Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colorless, very poisonous, flammable gas with the characteristic foul odor of rotten eggs. 
HA  Hatch 
Haematotoxic  Capable of causing injury to the blood and/or blood-forming tissues. 
HAEMHF  Hose Ancillary Equipment & Managing Hoses in the Field 
Hague Rules  A multilateral maritime treaty adopted in 1921 (at The Hague, Netherlands). Standardizes liability of an international carrier under the Ocean B/L. Establishes a legal “floor” for B/L. See COGSA 
Hallmarks  A mark indicating quality or excellence. 
Halon  Previously used on ships as an effective fire-extinguishing medium, harmful to the ozone layer in the atmosphere 
Hand over Fist  Hand over hand was a British term for the act of moving quickly up a rope or hoisting a sail, which was a matter of pride and competition among sailors. It is thought that American sailors changed this term to ‘hand over fist’, and the term now means to advance or accumulate rapidly. 
Handy  Vessel designed for carrying refined petroleum products in bulk tanks (19,001 dwt - 25,000 dwt approx ) 
Handy-sized vessel  A tankship suited to tie up at a T2 type pier. The mooring capacity of such berths restricts vessel length (LOA) to a maximum of 560-600 feet. In modern ship designs, this LOA allows a deadweight tonnage slightly exceeding 30,000. Such a tanker defines the limit of a handy-sized cargo. 
Handymax  Handymax or Supramax is a naval architecture term for a bulk carrier, typically between 35,000 and 60,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT). A handymax ship is typically 150–200 m (492–656 ft) in length, though certain bulk terminal restrictions, such as those in Japan, mean that many handymax ships are just under 190 meters (623 ft) in overall length. Modern handymax designs are typically 52,000-58,000 DWT in size, have five cargo holds, and four cranes of 30 tonnes (33.1 ST; 29.5 LT) lifting capacity. 
Handymax Vessel  A dry bulk vessel of 35,000 to 49,000dwt. (Note that a “Handy” drybulk carrier is from 10,000 to 34,000dwt.) A “Handymax Tanker” is a liquid bulk carrier of 10,000 to 60,000dwt. 
Handysize  Usually refers to a dry bulk vessel with deadweight of about 15,000–35,000 tons. The most common industry-standard specification handysize bulker is now about 32,000 metric tons of deadweight on a summer draft of about 10 metres (33 ft), and features 5 cargo holds with hydraulically operated hatch covers, with four 30 metric ton cranes for cargo handling. Some handysizes are also fitted with stanchions to enable logs to be loaded in stacks on deck. Such vessels are often referred to as 'handy loggers'. 
Handysize Tanker  A product tanker that ranges in size between 27,000 and 39,999 deadweight tonnes. 
Harbor  A harbor is a sheltered part of a body of water deep enough to provide anchorage for ships or a place of refuge. Key features of all harbors include shelter from both long-and short period open ocean waves, easy safe access to the ocean in all types of weather, adequate depth and maneuvering room within the harbor, shelter from storm winds and cost-effective navigation channel dredging. 
Harbor and Ship Assist Tugs  Tugboats are designed to be powerful enough to push and pull objects many times their size. Harbor tugs are essential in every port to help maneuver large ships through narrow harbors and to assist them in docking and undocking from confined spaces. Harbor tugs use short towlines and the physical force of pushing the large ships with their rubber fendered bows and sterns to guide them. 
Harbor Master  An official responsible for construction, maintenance, operation, regulation, enforcement, administra- tion and management pertaining to marinas, ports and harbors. 
Hard and Fast  A ship that was hard and fast was simply one that was firmly beached on land. Has come to mean ‘rigidly adhered to – without doubt or debate’. 
Hard Butter  A generic term used primarily in the confectionery industry to describe a class of fats with physical characteristics similar to those of cocoa butter or dairy butter. 
Hard Up  Hard is another often used nautical term. To put the helm hard over is to put it as far as it will go in that direction. Hard and fast describes a vessel firmly aground and unable to make progress and has come ashore to mean rigid. ‘Hard up in a clinch and no knife to cut the seizing’, the term from which hard up derives, was a sailor’s way of saying he had been overtaken by misfortune and saw no way of getting clear of it. Shore-side, the term means in need. 
Harmonized System of Codes (HS)  An international goods classification system for describing cargo in international trade under a single commodity–coding scheme. Developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperations Council (CCC), an international Customs organization in Brussels, this code is a hierarchically structured prod- uct nomenclature containing approximately 5,000 headings and subheadings.

It is organized into 99 chapters arranged in 22 sections. Sections encompass an industry (e.g., Section XI, Textiles and Textile Articles); chapters encompass the various materials and products of the indus- try (e.g., Chapter 50, Silk; Chapter 55, Manmade Staple Fibers; Chapter 57, Carpets).

The basic code contains four–digit headings and six–digit subheadings. Many countries add digits for Customs tariff and statistical purposes. In the United States, duty rates will be the eight–digit level; statistical suffixes will be at the ten–digit level. The Harmonized System (HS) is the current U.S. tariff schedule (TSUSA) for imports and is the basis for the ten–digit Schedule B export code. 
HAT  Highest astronomical tide 
Hatch  The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold. 
HAZ MAT  Hazardous Material 
Hazard  The hazard associated with a chemical is its intrinsic ability to cause an adverse effect. It should be compared to risk, which is the chance that such effects will occur. Whilst a chemical may have hazardous properties, provided it is handled safely under contained conditions, any risk to human health or the environment is extremely low. 
Hazardous Chemical  Any chemical that is a physical (i.e. -flammable, reactive) or health (i.e. irritant, carcinogen) hazard 
HBF  Harmless Bulk Fertilizer 
HBI  Hot Briquetted Iron 
HBL  Hydrostatic Balanced Loading (Marpol 13g): A process that may be adopted by single hull tankers if they wish to trade beyond 25 years of age through to final "phase-out" date at 30 years of age. This method of operation is designed to reduce the environ 
HBR  Hamburg range 
HC or H/C  Hatch cover; Hold cleaning 
HCFC  Hydro-chlorofluorocarbon compounds, such as freon 22 (R22) 
HCHTRS  Head charterers 
HCl  Hydrochloric Acid 
HCM  Ho Chi Minh City 
HD  Half DIspatch or Per hatch per day 
HDATS  Half dispatch all time saved 
HDATSBE  Half dispatch all time saved both ends 
HDL  Hatch delivery 
HDLTSBENDS  Half Dispatch Lay Time Saved Both Ends 
HDPE  High-density polyethylene. A plastic that is used predominantly in the manufacture of blow-molded bottles for milk and household cleaners and injection-molded pails, bottle caps, appliance housings, and toys. 
HDWTS  Half Despatch Working Time Saved 
HDWTSBE  Half dispatch working time saved both ends 
HDWTSBENDS  Half despatch working time saved both ends 
Health Hazard  A chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees 
Heart cut  A distillation fraction restricted to a narrow range to meet specific needs. The navy, for instance, buys a heart cut of ordinary jet kero known as JP-5. 
Heat Bleaching  The process by which the natural carotene which colours crude palm oil is destroyed in the final stage of refining during deodorisation at temperatures above 240°C. Sometimes called "thermal bleaching". 
Heaving  Ship Stability: is the linear vertical (up/down) motion 
Heavy condensates  see CONDENSATES 
Heavy Crude  Crude oil that is more difficult to pump and process due to a higher viscosity. 
Heavy fuel oil  A dense, opaque petroleum derivative made from the unboiled material, the bottoms or residue, from crude vacuum distillation units plus, perhaps heavy product from crackers. Blends made to meet market or specific customers standards often also include quality improvers called cutter. Material marketable for burning fits the Number 6 (No. 6) oil description in ASTMD 396. Ships consume a good portion of the No. 6 oil produced around the world. Seafarers customarily call their vessels fuel bunkers. Some people use that name for all heavy fuel oil. 
Heavy Grade Oil  "Heavy grade Oil: o crude oils, having a density at 15º C higher than 900 kg/m3; o oils, other than crude oils, having either a density at 15º C higher than 900 kg/m3 or a kinematic viscosity at 50 º C higher than 180 mm2/s; or; o bitumen, tar and their emulsions." 
Heavy liquids cracker  An ethylene plant equipped to crack naphthas or gasoils. 
Heavy Load Carrier  A cargo vessel able to carry heavy and/or outsized individual cargoes. Cargo may be carried on deck or in holds and may be loaded by crane and/or ro-ro ramps 
Heavy Load Carrier, semi submersible  A heavy load carrier which is semi submersible for the float on loading/unloading of the cargoes 
Heavy Metals  Refers to metals such as copper and iron. Their presence in oils and fats is undesirable due to their pro-oxidant effect. 
Heavy naphtha  A naphtha cut with a boiling range which commonly extends from the end of the light naphtha range (300-400 F, depending on the intentions and needs of the refiner). See naphtha. 
Heavy oil cracker  A variety of catalytic cracker designed to process straight-run fuel oil instead of vacuum gasoil. 
Heavy Weather Ballast  Additional ballast loaded into cargo tanks to enable the vessel to maintain a safe sea-going condition under extreme weather conditions. 
Heavy–Lift Charge  A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship’s normal tackle. 
HEDSET  Harmonized Electronic Data Set. The European Council Regulation (EEC) 793/93 requires producers and importers of chemical substances to submit to the European Commission data concerning a number of chemicals, if the production or import volume exceeds certain limits. This serves to evaluate and control the risks of existing substances. The data must be supplied on computer readable diskettes written with the HEDSET, or Harmonized Electronic Data Set, program. 
HELDK  HELicopter DecK 
Helicopter Carrier  A combat vessel designed to enable the carriage, take off and landing of helicopters 
HF  Half 
HF  High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz.
Frequencies immediately below HF are denoted Medium-frequency (MF), and the next higher frequencies are known as Very high frequency (VHF). 
HFA  Haifa 
HFC  Hydrofluorocarbons 
HFO  Heavy fuel oil 
HG  Heavy Goods (vehicle) or Heavy Grain 
HGWG  Mercury Working Group 
HH  Ports between and inclusive of Le Havre and Hamburg 
HHD  Hogshead 
HHDW  Handy Heavy Dead Weight (e.g. scrap) 
HHDWS  Heavy, handy, deadweight scrap 
HI  Hull interest insurance  
High and Dry  This term originally referred to ships that were beached. The ‘dry’ implies that, not only were they out of the water, but had been for some time and could be expected to remain so. 
High pour  A description of distillate or residual fuel oils which do not flow at unusually low temperatures. Often, the term designates ordinary product and distinguishes it from material with uncommonly good cold properties. 
High Purity Standard  Tank cleaning: High Purity Standard is required for very sensitive cargoes to be loaded such as products applied in food processing (Food Grade) or in pharma production (USP), where any contamination is a potentially high risk for the application. Another category of product that typically requires high purity standard are all active solvents, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, glycol ethers, light alcohols (e.g. methanol), ketones (e.g. acetone) and many hydrocarbons (e.g. hexene). These chemicals tend to dissolve all remaining impurities resulting in potential contamination of the substance.
Sometimes chemical companies require High Purity Standard because the application of the product in chemical processing is very sensitive to contamination (e.g. poisoning of catalyst) and is thus comparable with the requirements for food or pharma grade. In MIRACLE for every product the typical cleanliness standard is listed. Depending on companies and their quality requirements those standards might deviate from the usual cleanliness requirement.  
High viscosity crude oil  A crude oil which due to its viscosity alone requires heating during transportation, COW or discharge. These bypes of crude oil generally have a high aromatic content. 
High-Flash  Herosene which features a higher than normal flash point. This quality makes kero safer in critical circumstances. Primarily, it suits such distillate for use as gasoil blendstock. 
High-speed diesel  Distillate fuel oil suitable for powering compression ignition engines operated above 1,000 RPM. Diesel of this quality fits ASTM classifications No. 2-D. Light-duty engines such as those which power trucks, buses, portable electricity generators, small boats, and some locomotives, burn this grade of fuel. 
High–Density Compression  Compression of a flat or standard bale of cotton to approximately 32 pounds per cubic foot. Usually applies to cotton exported or shipped coastwise. 
Higher amines  See Ethyleneamines 
Higher olefins  Higher olefins are hydrocarbons that have chains of up to 20 or more carbonatoms, and are converted to products such as plastics, plasticizers, and other high value chemicals. 
Hire  T/C remuneration  
Hire-purchase charter-party  C/P where the charterer gets ownership of the vessel at the conclusion of the C/P 
Hit the Deck  The prudent thing to do when subjected to a French broadside 
Hitchment  The marrying of two or more portions of one shipment that originate at different locations, mov- ing under one bill of lading, from one shipper to one consignee. Authority for this service must be granted by tariff publication. See Bill of Lading. 
HKG  Hong Kong 
HL  Heavy lift 
HLESS  Harmless 
HMB  Heavy motor block 
HMS  Heavy Melting Scrap or Her (His) Majesty's Ship 
HMT  Hazardous Materials Technician 
HNS  Hazardous and Noxious Substance 
HO  Hold or Head office 
HO  Deck House (OCIMF acronym) 
HO/HA  Hold/hatch 
HO/HA or HOHA  Holds/hatches 
Hold or HO  A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo 
Holiday  HOLIDAY shall mean a Day other than the normal weekly Day(s) of rest, or part thereof, when by local law or practice work during what would otherwise be ordinary working hours is not normally carried out. 
Homogeneous Cargo  Cargo of the same quality or nature which can be potentially intermingled without contamination to one or the other. 
Homopolymer  When a polymer is derived from a single monomer then all the repeating units along its chain are the same and it is described as a homopolymer. Copolymer is made from two monomers. 
HON  Honorary 
Hopper Barge  A barge which loads material dumped into it by a dredger and discharges the cargo through the bot- tom. 
Hopper Barge, non propelled  A bottom discharging or split hull barge. 
Hopper, Motor  A self propelled vessel equipped to carry material and discharge it at sea through the bottom of the vessel, either by bottom doors or a split hull 
Hopper/Bucket Dredger  A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of circulating buckets. The material may be carried on board and discharged elsewhere through the bottom of the vessel, either by bottom doors or a split hull, or delivered to other vessels, pum 
Hopper/Dredger (unspecified)  A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by an unspecified means. The material may be carried on board and discharged elsewhere through the bottom of the vessel, either by bottom doors or a split hull, or delivered to other vessels, pumped as 
Hopper/Grab Dredger  A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a grab or backhoe. The material may be carried on board and discharged elsewhere through the bottom of the vessel, either by bottom doors or a split hull, or delivered to other vessels, pumpe 
Hopper/Suction Dredger  A vessel equipped to obtain material from the sea bed by use of a suction pipe. The material may be carried on board and discharged elsewhere through the bottom of the vessel, either by bottom doors or a split hull, or delivered to other vessels, pumped a 
Hospital Vessel  A vessel equipped to serve as a hospital 
Hospital Vessel, Naval Auxiliary  A naval auxiliary vessel adapted as a hospital ship 
Hot zone  Area immediately surrounding a dangerous goods incident which extends far enough to prevent adverse effects from released dangerous goods to personnel outside the zone. This zone is also referred to as exclusion zone or restricted zone in other documents. 
House–to–House  See Door–to–Door. 
House–to–Pier  Cargo loaded into a container by the shipper under shipper’s supervision. When the cargo is exported, it is unloaded at the foreign pier destination. 
Houseboat  A barge or converted vessel that is stationary and used as a dwelling 
HP  Horse Power or High Pressure 
HPA  High Pressure Ahead 
HPV  High Production Volume chemical, defined by the European Chemicals Bureau as a chemical being produced or imported in quantity of at least 1000 tonnes per year in EU by at least one Industry.  
HPV Programme  A global initiative launched by the global chemical industry to demonstrate to regulators and the general public the feasibility of timely risk assessments of High Production Volume chemicals.  
HR  Hydraulic aggregate room (OCIMF acronym) 
HR  Hellenic Register or Here or Hour 
HR or HRS  Hour(s) 
HR/HRDS  Hampton Roads 
HRC  Hot Rolled Coils 
HRDS  Hampton Roads (New York) 
HRS  Hellenic Register of Shipping 
HRS  Hours 
HSD  Half Shelter Decker or High Speed Diesel 
HSE  Health, Safety and Environment 
HSFO  High sulphur fuel oil 
HSO  Guide to Helicopter/Ship Operations (ICS) 
HSPA  Hydrocarbon Solvent Producers Association, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE).  
HSS  Heavy grains, Soyabeans and sorghums 
HT  Height 
HTUTC  Half Time Used To Count 
Huey Test  Corrosion test in a boiling solution of nitric acid. This test is mainly used to detect the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of stainless steel 
Hull  Shell or body of a vessel not including other components such as deck, mast, cabin, keel or rigging. 
Humping  The process of connecting a moving rail car with a motionless rail car within a rail classification yard in order to make up a train. The cars move by gravity from an incline or “hump” onto the appropriate track. 
HV  Have 
HVF  Heavy fuel or Heavy viscosity fueloil 
HVFL  HeaVy Fuel 
HVPQ  Harmonized Vessel Particulars Questionnaire. Description data format utilised by the OCIMF SIRE system. 
HW  High Water 
HWDW  Heavy, handy, dead weight 
HWLTHC  Height waterline to top hatch 
HWM  High water mark 
HWONT  High Water On Ordinary Neap Tides 
HWOST  High Water On Ordinary Spring Tides 
HX  Hold (OCIMF acronym) 
Hydrocarbon  A molecule composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms. The industry usually includes sulfur and metals compounds which naturally occur in crude oil in casual uses of the word. Gasoline blending and marketing rely on the strict [Definition] to exclude oxygen-containing substances such as alcohols and ethers. 
Hydrocarbon  An organic compound that consists exclusively of the elements carbon and hydrogen. Generally, the term hydrocarbon is used for the chemicals that are derived from natural gas, oil and coal. 
Hydrocarbons  Compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms that release chemical energy when burned, providing an excellent and sought after fuel source. 
Hydrocrackate  Naphtha-range product of a hydrocracking unit. Many refineries divide this stream into a light cut suitable for motor gasoline blending and a heavy one which makes excellent reformer feedstock. 
Hydrocracker  Refinery units which use a catalyst and extraordinary high pressure, in the presence of surplus hydrogen, to shorten molecules. This process can crack a variety of hydrocarbons. It might change atmospheric gasoil to naphtha or reduce naphtha to LPG. In most cases, though, refiners use it to convert vacuum gasoil to high quality middle distillate. In periods of strong motor gasoline demand, high severity operations can emphasize production of naphtha, called hydrocrackate, instead of diesel and kerosene. 
Hydrodealkylation (HDA)  substitution of hydrogen for a hydrocarbon group in a molecule. Refiners most frequently apply the term to processing units which turn toluene into benzene. 
Hydrogenation  Each double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid chain can react with two hydrogen atoms to become saturated. The chemical reaction is known as hydrogenation and is achieved by reacting the oil with gaseous hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Hydrogenation of oils and fats is often referred to as ""hardening"". 
Hydrolysis  The initial process used to obtain fatty acids from fats and oils is hydrolysis, resulting in mixed fatty acids and dilute glycerine. Purification of the mixed fatty acids is accomplished by distillation or by separation into individual fatty acids of different chain lengths by fractional distillation. 
Hydroskimmer  A refinery more complex than a topping plant by virtue of having a reformer. That piece of equipment, in addition to making high octane motor gasoline blendstock, yields hydrogen. Even a fairly basic refinery can often use that by-product to improve the quality of its products. Hydroskimmers do not have cracking units. 
Hydrotreating  Purification process which uses hydrogen to displace sulfur and metal contaminents from partially refined oil. The process also reduces olefins and aromatics concentrations by saturating multiple bonds. Such clean-up work prepares process intermediates for upgrading units and blend stocks for specification fuel pools.