Abbreviations & Definitions
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Ampere or Area or Aft 
Ship Stability: Area, generally. 
A & CP  Anchors and chains proved 
A Square Meal  In good weather, crews' mess was a warm meal served on square wooden platters. 
A.G. OR AG  Arabian Gulf 
A.O.E  Any one event 
A.O.R.  Any one risk 
A/  Account 
A/B  Able bodied seaman, a member of the crew who is able to perform all duties of an experienced seaman. 
A/C  Account or Air Changes 
A/E  Accept/Except 
A/F  Also for (referring to port/s to be touched by ship) 
A/H  Anchor Handling 
A/O  and/or; Account of 
A/R  All risks or Against all risks 
A/R  Arrived or Antwerp - Rotterdam range 
A/S  Account sales or Alongside or After sight 
A1  First class condition 
AA  Always afloat or Always accessible or Apparent altitude 
AAAA  Always afloat always accessible 
AAC  Alaska Administrative Code 
AAGR  Average Annual Growth Rate  
AAOSA  Always afloat or safely aground 
AAPA  American Association of Port Authority 
AAR  Against all risks or All and any risk 
AARA  Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area 
AASO  Association of American Shipowners 
AB  Above bridges or Answer Back 
Abaft  A point beyond the midpoint of a ship’s length, towards the rear or stern. 
Abandon  A proceeding wherein a shipper/consignee seeks authority to abandon all or parts of their cargo. 
Abatement  A discount allowed for damage or overcharge in the payment of a bill. 
ABB  All Buoy Berth 
ABCU  Automated Bridge Control System For Unattended Engine Room 
ABI  U.S. Customs’ “Automated Broker Interface,” by which brokers file importers’ entries electronically. 
Aboard  Referring to cargo being put, or laden, onto a means of conveyance. 
Above Board  Anything on or above the open deck. If something is open and in plain view, it is above board. 
Above deck  On the deck (not over it – see ALOFT)  
ABS  American Bureau Of Shipping 
Absolute Viscosity  An observation of liquid's rate of flow under pressure applied to neutralize density's influence. This property, sometimes called dynamic viscosity, converts to kinematical viscosity by division. With density ex-pressed in gramscm, centistokes the units of kinematical viscosity, and centipoises the units of absolute viscosity. Centipoisesdensity = centistokes 
Absorption  One carrier assumes the charges of another without any increase in charges to the shipper. 
Abt  About 
Abv  Above 
ACC  American Chemistry Council 
Accelerated Corrosion Test  Corrosion test carried out under more severe conditions that will yield results in a shorter time than in service 
Acceptance  A time draft (or bill of exchange) that the drawee (payer) has accepted and is unconditionally obligated to pay at maturity. Broadly speaking, any agreement to purchase goods under specified terms. 
Accessorial Charges  Charges that are applied to the base tariff rate or base contract rate, e.g., bunkers, container, currency, destination/delivery. 
Accommodation Platform, jack up  A jack up offshore accommodation platform 
Accommodation Platform, semi submersible  A semi submersible offshore accommodation platform 
Accommodation Ship  A vessel providing accommodation for those working on other vessels and installations 
Accommodation Vessel, Stationary  A stationary accommodation vessel 
ACCT  Account 
Acetaldehyde  An aldehyde used as a starting material in the synthesis of acetic acid, n-butyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and other chemical compounds. 
Acetate  An ester formed from acetic acid and an alcohol 
Acetic acid  Acetic acid is a key organic intermediate used in the preparation of metal acetates, used in some printing processes; vinyl acetate; acetic anhydride, and volatile organic esters, such as ethyl and butyl acetates. 
Acetic anhydride  The most important of the organic anhydrides, used to manufacture pain-relieving pharmaceuticals (aspirin, paracetamol), modified starches, emulsifiers, liquid crystal polymers, dyestuffs and cellulose acetate, a major ingredient in photographic films and textiles. 
Acetone  An organic solvent of industrial and chemical significance, acetone is capable of dissolving many fats, resins and cellulose esters. It is used extensively in the manufacture of artificial fibers and explosives, as a chemical intermediate in pharmaceuticals, and as a solvent for vinyl and acrylic resins, lacquers, paints, inks, cosmetics (such as nail polish remover), and varnishes. It is used in the preparation of paper coatings, adhesives, and is also employed as a starting material in the synthesis of many compounds. 
Acetyl  Any chemical compound with an acetate group.  
ACGIH  American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. This organization includes professionals in government and education involved in occupational safety and health programs. One important function of this group is the determination and publication of recommended occupational exposure limits for chemical substances. 
Acid  Any substance that in water solution tastes sour, changes the color of certain indicators, promotes certain chemical reactions, etc.. Examples of acids include inorganic substances such as sulfuric, nitric, and phosphoric acids, and organic compounds such as citric or maleic acid. 
Acid Oil  Acid oil is a general term for a by-product obtained from the alkali refining of oils and fats. During alkali refining the free fatty acids are neutralised with alkali and this soapstock containing some emulsified neutral oil is separated. Acidification of the soapstock gives acid oil. Main components of acids oils are fatty acids, neutral oil and moisture. Acid oil requires further refining/purification before it is suitable for use in laundry soaps and washing powders. 
Acid Pre-Treatment  The crude oil or fat is pre-treated with phosphoric acid or citric acid to remove impurities such as gums, mucilaginous materials and phosphatides present. Also referred to as "degumming", it is essential since it removes impurities which would otherwise give a highly coloured product. 
Acid Value  This is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralise the free fatty acids in one gram of fat. Since acid value is an indication of the extent of hydrolysis and deterioration, oils with low acid value are sought after. 
Acidity  Free fatty acids have, as the name implies, a weak acidic nature. There will be a naturally occurring level of these present in each oil and levels can be further increased by hydrolysis (water breakdown) of triglyceride. The level of acidity may be expressed in several ways (please refer to Acid Value and Free Fatty Acids). 
Acidulate soapstock (Acid Oil)  Soapstock, which contains mainly soaps and entrained neutral oil, is treated with sulphuric acid and heated to decompose the soaps. This produces a layer of oil of high free fatty acid content (acid oil) and an aqueous phase which is separated and treated prior to discharge as an effluent. The acid oils can be used in animal feeds as they possess high calorific values. 
ACOT  Advisory Committee of Offshore Technology 
ACP  African, Caribbean, Pacific countries 
Acquiescence  When a bill of lading is accepted or signed by a shipper or shipper’s agent without protest, the shipper is said to acquiesce to the terms, giving a silent form of consent. 
Acquittance  A written receipt in full, in discharge from all claims. 
Acrylate elastomer  In latex paints, textile applications (backcoating), emulsion polymers for paper coating; as pulp additives, in floor polishes & sealants (resinous & polymeric coatings), in adhesives. 
Acrylic acid  Acrylic acid and the basic alkyl esters (methyl, ethyl, butyl and 2-ethylhexyl esters) are important monomers used for the manufacture of polymer dispersions, adhesives, flocculants, detergents, varnishes, fibers and plastics as well as chemical intermediates. 
Acrylic esters  When polymerized, acrylic esters, esters derived from acrylic acid, are the film-forming components of acrylic paints, coatings, textiles, adhesives, plastics and other applications.  
Acrylic fibers  Acrylic fibers are artificial, thermoplastic fibers made from acrylonitrile. Fabrics produced from acrylic fibers wash and dry easily 
Acrylonitrile  Acrylonitrile is a chemical intermediate used in acrylic fibers, ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene), SAN (styrene-acrylonitrile) and NBR (nitrile-butadiene-rubber).  
ACS  American Chemical Society or Arab Classification Society 
ACS or ACE  U.S. Customs’ master computer system, “Automated Commercial Systems.” Now being replaced by the Automated Commercial Environment system. 
Act of God  An act beyond human control, such as lightning, flood or earthquake. 
Activation  Changing the condition of steel from passive to active 
Activation Potential  The electrode potential at which a steel is changed from passive to active condition 
Active State  state of a corroding metal surface which is below the passivation potential and associated with uniform corrosion 
Activity  The level of catalyst's ability to do its work. The scale descends from fresh (full capacity right from the box or rejuvenator) to spent (coated, poisoned, or other wise neutralized.) 
Actual condition  Ship Stability: A condition of the vessel that is observed. 
Actual specifications  The quality reports on a specific parcel of fuel or feedstock. Such specifications do not constitute guarantees on the oil unless the seller says so. But they give a good description of the product available aboard a vessel or in a storage tank. 
Acute  A short term period of action measured in seconds, minutes, hours, or days 
Acute (aquatic) toxicity  Adverse effects that occur rapidly as a result of a short-term exposure to a chemical or physical agent. In fish or other aquatic organisms, effects that occur within a few hours, days or weeks are considered acute. Generally, acute effects are severe, the most common one measured in aquatic organisms being mortality. A chemical is considered acutely toxic if by its direct action it kills 50% or more of the exposed population of test organisms in a relatively short period of time, such as 24-96h to 14d. 
Acute Effects of Overexposure  Refers to the adverse effects that normally are evident immediately or shortly after exposure to a hazardous material without implying a degree of severity 
Acute toxicity  Adverse effects produced by single exposure to substance 
AD  After date 
Ad val.  Ad Valorem (duty) 
Ad Valorem  A term from Latin meaning, “according to value.” Import duty applied as a percentage of the cargo’s dutiable value. 
Ad valorum  Means “at Value” a rate of freight based on the value of the goods.  
AD.VAL.  According to value (ad valorem) 
ADA  All Details About 
ADCOM  Address Commission  
ADCOM or ADDCOMM  Address commission 
ADD  Address 
ADD'L  additional 
Added Weight Method  Ship Stability: A method of solving for damage stability where the water that enters the vessel is considered an added weight. 
Addendum  Additional chartering terms at the end of a charter party 
Additives  In many plastic products, the polymer is only one constituent. In order to arrive at a set of properties appropriate to the product, the polymer is almost always combined with other ingredients, or additives, which are mixed in during processing and fabrication. Among these additives are impact modifiers, colorants, reinforcements, plasticizers and stabilizers. See also plastics and conversion. 
ADEC  Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation 
ADF  automotive diesel fuel 
ADF&G  Alaska Department of Fish and Game (State Agency) 
Adm  Admiralty: Refers to marine matters such as an Admiralty Court. 
Administrative Law Judge  A representative of a government commission or agency vested with power to administer oaths, examine witnesses, take testimony, and conduct hearings of cases submitted to, or initiated by, that agency. Also called Hearing Examiner. 
ADNR  The transport of dangerous goods on the River Rhine and most inland waterways in Europe is regulated by ADNR. 
ADV  Advise 
Advance  To move cargo up line to a vessel leaving sooner than the one booked. (See also Roll.) 
Advanced Charge  Transportation charge advanced by one carrier to another to be collected by the later carrier from the consignor or consignee. 
Advanced Notice of Arrival (ANOA)  Any vessel entering United States waters from a foreign port is required to give a 96–hour ANOV. Any vessel of 300 gross registered tonnage and greater is required to give the ANOA to the U.S. Coast Guard’s National Vessel Movement Center. Any vessel under 300 gross registered tons is required to give the ANOA to the appropriate Captain of the Port. 
Adventure  Shipment of goods on shipper’s own account. A bill of adventure is a document signed by the master of the ship that carries goods at owner’s risk. Also, a term used in some insurance policies to mean a voyage or a shipment. 
Advice of Shipment  A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is often enclosed and, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading. 
Advising Bank  A bank operating in the seller’s country that handles letters of credit on behalf of a foreign bank. 
AE  Auxilary Engine 
AECC  Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst, an association affiliated to Cefic. 
AF  All Fast or Advance Freight 
AFA  All Figures About 
AFAA  as far as applicable 
AFCSPS  Arrival first compulsory sea pilot station 
AFFREIGHTMENT  The hiring of a ship in whole or part 
Affreightment, Contract of  An agreement by an ocean carrier to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer. 
AFMT  After fixing main terms 
AFRA  Average Freight Rate Assessments. A monthly estimate of tanker rates issued by London tanker brokers, AFRA, quoted on a Worldscale basis, assists large oil companies' internal accounting, provides a freight element for some netback deals, and serves other purposes somewhat removed for the daily tanker business. 
AFRAMAX  AFRA - (Average Freight Rate Assessment) designed for carrying For bulk crude oil in tanks (80,000 dwt - 120,000 dwt) 
Aframax Tanker  A vessel of 70,000 to 119,000 DWT capacity. The largest tanker size in the AFRA (average freight rate assessment) tanker rate system. 
AFSPS  Arrival First Sea Pilot Station 
AFT  The foremost part of the ship 
After Perpendicular  Ship Stability: Usually established at the intersection of the design waterline and the vessels rudder stock or stern post 
AFTRN  Afternoon 
AG  Arabian Gulf - also called PG - Persian Gulf 
Agency Tariff  A tariff published by an agent on behalf of several carriers. 
Agent or Ship's Agent  Person looking after the interests of a ship whiøe in port. Duties include organising pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading 
Aggregate Shipment  Numerous shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment. 
Aggregates Carrier  A single deck cargo vessel for the carriage of aggregates in bulk. Also known as a Sand Carrier. May be self discharging 
Agreed valuation  The value of a shipment agreed upon in order to secure a specific freight rate. 
Agreed Weight  The weight prescribed by agreement between carrier and shipper for goods shipped in certain packages or in a certain number. 
AGRIPODS  Agricultural products 
Agrochemical  A chemical, such as a hormone, fungicide, or insecticide, that improves or protects the production of crops. 
Aground  Touching or fast to the bottom 
Agt.  Agent: A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company. Types of agents are:
(1) brokers
(2) commission merchants
(3) resident buyers
(4) sales agents
(5) manufacturer’s representatives 
AGW  All going well 
AGW WP  All going well weather permitting 
AH  Range of ports between and including Antwerp and Hamburg 
AH  Aft hatch 
AH  Anchor Handling 
AHL  Australian hold ladders 
AHS  Annual Hull Survey 
AHT  Anchor Handling Tug 
AHTS  Anchor Handling Towage and Supply-vessels which supply oil rigs, tow them to location and anchor them up. They can also be used for supply roles. 
AID  Agency for International Development 
Aids to Navigation  Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and unsafe waters  
AIMS  American Institute of Merchant Shipping 
Air Cushion Vehicle Crew Boat  An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a crew boat 
Air Cushion Vehicle Passenger  An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used for the purpose of transporting passengers 
Air Cushion Vehicle Passenger/Ro-Ro Ship (Vehicles)  An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used for the purpose of transporting passengers and ro-ro vehicles 
Air Cushion Vehicle Patrol Vessel  An air cushion vehicle or hovercraft used as a patrol vessel (perhaps change to work vessel) 
Air Cushion Vehicle Research  An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a research vessel 
Air Cushion Vehicle, work vessel  An air cushioned vehicle or hovercraft specifically designed as a work vessel 
Air Draft  The distance between the surface of navigable water, such as a channel, and the lowest point on some obstruction above it, a bridge for instance. A ship cannot use a waterway if it needs more vertical clearance than available. This consideration prevents certain tankers from reaching some terminals. 
Air Draft  Ship Stability: The vertical distance from the vessel's actual waterline upward to a point on the vessel. 
Air Waybill  The forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is issued only in nonnegotiable form. 
Aircraft Carrier  A combat vessel designed to enable the carriage, take off and landing of aircraft 
AIS  Automatic Identification System - Real-time ship identification. All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespe 
AK  Alaska 
AL  Action Level. Certain OSHA regulations take effect if this exposure level is reached. These regulations include workplace air analysis, employee training, medical monitoring, and record keeping. This level is about half of the permissible exposure limit. 
Alcohol resistant foam  A foam that is resistant to "polar" chemicals such as ketones and esters which may break down other types of foam. 
Alcohol Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of alcohol 
Alcohols  Alcohols are amongst the most common organic compounds. Well-known alcohols include methanol (methyl alcohol, or wood alcohol), ethanol (ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol) and isopropyl alcohol (the common alcohol known as rubbing alcohol and used as a germicide). Alcohols are also valuable as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. 
Aldehyde  An important starting material and intermediate in organic synthesis. Many aldehydes of industrial significance are used as solvents, perfumes, and flavoring agents or as intermediates in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. 
Aliphatic  Any organic compound in which the main structure is a chain of carbon atoms joined to each other is classified as being aliphatic. 
Alkali  A substance having a pH between 7 and 14 
Alkali Refining  The traded quality of oils and fats is determined primarily by the level of free fatty acids present. In crude oils, this may be as low as 0.5% as in soya, or as high as 6.0% as in the case of palm oil. Removal of this impurity is the major source of calculable loss during processing. The term "alkali refining" is applied to the process in which the free fatty acid is reduced chemically by reacting the free acid with an aqueous alkali, forming the alkali metal soap which is then removed by settling or centrifuging. 
Alkryd Resin  The reaction product of polyols, diacids, acids and anhydrides used primarily in the surface coating industry in which fatty acids, oils and glycerine are used to impart properties, e.g. chemical resistance, hardness, drying speed and flexibility. 
Alkyl benzene  One of the most important organic raw material for the production of synthetic detergents. 
Alkylate  A high-quality motor gasoline component made by combining isobutene and propylene or butylene. Butylene alkylate has a particularly high motor octane rating which suits it well for blending lead-free grades of automobile fuel and aviation gasoline. Both butylene and propylene alkylate boil fairly low in the gasoline range. This characteristic makes them good “front-end” octane. 
Alkylation  Olefins such as propylene and butylene are produced by catalytic and thermal cracking. Alkylation refers to the process using sulfuric or hydro-fluoric acid as a catalyst to combine these olefins with isobutane to produce a high octane product known as alkylate. 
Alkylation unit  A piece of refining equipment that combines isobutane and an olefinic stream, usually butylene-rich, to make motor alkylate. 
Alkylphenol  Alkylphenol is produced using phenol as a starting material. It is mainly used as a stabilizer for rubbers and plastics, as a surfactant, as an industrial detergent, and in the mining and textile industries. 
All at Sea  This dates to the time when accurate navigational aids weren’t available. Any ship that was out of sight of land was in an uncertain position and in danger of becoming lost.. 
All In  The total price to move cargo from origin to destination, inclusive of all charges. 
ALLI  Annual Load Line Inspection 
Allision  When a moving vessel strikes a fixed object. 
Aloft  Above the deck of the ship 
Alongside  A phrase referring to the side of a ship. Goods delivered “alongside” are to be placed on the dock or barge within reach of the transport ship’s tackle so that they can be loaded. 
Aloof  Now means to stand apart or be indifferent, but it came from the Old Dutch word loef which meant “windward” and was used to describe a ship within a fleet which sailed higher to the wind and was thus drawn apart from the rest of the fleet. 
ALT  Altered or Altitude 
Alternative Rates  Privilege to use the rate producing the lowest charge. 
ALU  ALUminium 
Always Accessible  ALWAYS ACCESSIBLE shall mean that the charterer undertakes that an available loading or discharging Berth be provided to the Vessel on arrival at the Port which the Vessel can reach safely without delay. The charterer additionally undertakes that the Vessel will be able to depart safely from the Berth and without delay at any time before, during or on completion of loading or discharging. 
Always Afloat Or Always Safely Afloat  A charter party clause which requires that a ship is to berth for loading or discharging without touching the bottom of the sea / river / lake, etc. 
Ambient Temperature  The temperature of a surrounding body. The ambient temperature of a container is the atmospheric temperature to which it is exposed, 
AMD  Average Most Probable Discharge 
America's Inland Waterways System  America's 12,000 mile navigable inland waterways system is the envy of the world because it allows the safe, economical, and environmentally friendly transportation of commodities that are essential to the nation's economic well-being. For example, barges transport 60% of America's export grain on the nation's inland waterways, helping American farmers stay competitive with foreign producers. 
American Bureau of Shipping  U.S. classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance. 
AMI  American Methanol Institute 
Amidships  In or toward the centre of the ship 
Amine  A chemical grouping based on a nitrogen atom linked to an aliphatic or aromatic structure 
Amines  Amines are produced from fatty acids for use as surface-active compounds. The primary and secondary amines can be converted to tertiary amines, quats and amine oxides, all of which have valuable surface-active properties. Based on their cationic nature and ability to be strongly absorbed on many surfaces, they have many industrial and cosmetic applications. 
Amino Acids  Chief components of proteins which are the building blocks of living tissues. Eighteen different amino acids commonly occur in our food supply and eight are considered essential because the body cannot make them from other materials. 
AMS  Annual Machinery Survey 
AMWELSH  Americanised welsh coal charter party 
Anchor Handling Tug Supply  An offshore tug/supply ship equipped with a high bollard pull and a stern roller for anchor handling 
Anchor handling Vessel  A vessel equipped to assist with the handling of anchors in coastal waters 
Anchor Piling  Mooring point on the sea bed 
Anchorage  An area inside a water body providing the ships some protection from the weather while lying at anchor to stand by, load or unload cargo, await repairs, etc. They are protected areas where shippers lay down their anchors and wait to exit the harbor. 
Anhydride  Any chemical compound obtained, either in practice or in principle, by the elimination of water from another compound.  
Anhydrous-Free of Water  Anhydrous means dry or free from water. Oils are essentially anhydrous after refining and deodorisation, the usual specified maximum moisture level being 0.1%. Butter, made from dairy cream, consists of an emulsion with up to 16% of water. Margarine is formulated likewise. More and more the trend is to lower fat spreads. Anhydrous butter fat (ghee) is made from butter and is commercially available. 
Aniline  An organic base used to make dyes, drugs, explosives, plastics, and photographic and rubber chemicals. Aniline owes its name to the indigo-yielding plant, Indigofera anil, from the distillation of which aniline was first obtained. 
Aniline point  A specification, quoted in degree Fahrenheit in the USA and Centigrade elsewhere, which reports the aromatics content of a hydrocarbon mixture. This quality consideration indicates the susceptibility of a vacuum gasoil to catalytic cracking because paraffins crack well, but aromatics do not. The higher the temperature the better, since higher temperatures mean less aromatics, hence more paraffins. 
Anisidine Value  The anisidine value is a measure of the amount of aldehydes, principally 2-alkenals, present in oils. This gives a qualitative assessment of the amount of secondary oxidation products present in the oil. The anisidine value is determined by reacting a test solution of the oil with p-anisidine, which reacts with the 2-alkenals, and measuring the increase in absorbence at 350 nm, using a spectrometer. The anisidine value is often numerically combined with the peroxide value, a measure of primary oxidation, in the form of the Totox Value (2 x peroxide value + anisidine value) to give an overall assessment of the oxidation which has occurred. 
Anode  Electrode at which the anodic reaction predominates 
Anodic protection  Electrochemical protection achieved by increasing the corrosion potential to a value within the potential range of the passive state 
ANSI  American National Standards Institute 
ANTHAM  Antwerp - Hamburg range 
Anthracene  Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of three benzene rings derived from coal tar. Anthracene is used in the artificial production of the red dye alizarin. It is also found in some coal tar oils which are used for example as wood preservatives, insecticides and coating materials. 
Anti–Dumping Duty  A tariff imposed to discourage sale of foreign goods, subsidized to sell at low prices detrimental to local manufacturers. 
Antifoam  Foam is a two phase system consisting of liquid and gas wherein gas is distributed in the form of small bubbles throughout the liquid. Formation of foam is quite common in some oils and fats during prolonged heating/frying. To overcome or minimise foaming, food additives known as anti-foaming agents, generally silicone based, are added to the oils at very small levels, e.g. 1-5 ppm of Dimethyl Polysiloxane. These additives are usually only incorporated on request from the end user. 
Antifouling  Normally contains toxic compounds to prevent marine growth. Non-toxic products are gradually being introduced to the market 
Antiknock index  The average of a motor gasoline's or blending component's RON and MON (RON + MON)2, sometimes written (R + M)2. 
Antioxidants  Substances which inhibit the oxidation of fats and oils. They are added to fats and oils or fatcontaining products to provide greater stability and longer shelf-life by delaying the onset of oxidative rancidity. 
AOB  As On Board 
AOCS  American Oil Chemists Society. One of the largest professional bodies for oils and fats technologists. It has a large international membership and publishes a comprehensive book of analytical methods and two journals - "Lipids" and "Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society" - with a worldwide circulation. Its headquarters are in Champaign, Illinois, USA. 
AOG  Act of God 
AOH  After office hours 
AOR-E  Atlantic Ocean Region East 
AOR-W  Atlantic Ocean Region West 
AP  All purposes 
AP  Additional premium or Auto pilot 
AP  Aft perpendicular 
AP OR A/P OR APT  After peak tank 
APA  Aromatics Producers Association, a sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). 
APBS  Accident prevention on board ships at sea and in port (second edition) International Labour Office, Geneva (ILO) 
APC  American Plastics Council 
APD&T  Alaska Petroleum Distributors and Transporters 
APF  Afloat Prepositioning Force 
APG  Arabian Persian Gulf 
API  American Petroleum Institute 
API Degrees (API)  The units of API's density scale. 
API Gravity  A density scale expressed in API degrees. The following formula relates this representation of density to specific gravity: API = (141.5specific gravity @ 60`F)-131.5. AR: American rate. Tanker hire prices according to the American Tanker Rate Schedule. This system applies to voyages which begin and end in US ports. US law (the Jones Act) allows only US-flag ships in this domestic service. 
APLA  Latin American Petrochemical Association 
Apparent draft  Ship Stability: The drafts obtained form reading the draft at the draft marks. 
Apparent Good Order  When freight appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine. 
APPE  Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe 
Appraisement  Determination of the dutiable value of imported merchandise by a Customs official who follows procedures outlined in their country’s tariff, such as the U.S. Tariff Act of 1930. 
Appraiser’s Stores  The warehouse or public stores to which samples of imported goods are taken to be inspected, analyzed, weighed, etc. by examiners or appraisers. 
APPRX  approximately 
APS  Arrival Pilot Station or At Pilot Station 
APTF  Asia Pacific Terminal Forum 
AQ  Any Quantity: Usually refers to a rating that applies to an article regardless of size or quantity. 
Aquabreak PX  Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent which can be used throughout the ship 
aquatuff  Product name for an environmentally-adapted cleaning agent used in cargo holds 
AR  Accounts receivable 
AR  Auxiliary engine room (OCIMF acronym) 
ARA  Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam range 
ARAG  Amsterdam - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Gent range 
ARAGH  Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam - Ghent range 
ARAZ  Antwerp - Rotterdam - Amsterdam - Zeebrugge range 
ARB  Arbitration 
Arbitrary  A stated amount over a fixed rate to one point to make a rate to another point. 
Arbitration  Method of settling disputes which is usually binding on parties concerned. A clause usually in a charter party 
Area of water plane  Ship Stability: Area of WP= 420*TPI 
ARH  Antwerp - Rotterdam - Hamburg range 
ARHB  Antwerp - Rotterdam - Hamburg - Bremen range 
ARND  Around 
Aromatic  Aromatics are a highly reactive group of hydrocarbons with unsaturated rings of carbon atoms, producing a great variety of products. As their name implies, they have a strong odor, which is not unpleasant. 
Aromatics  A family of hydrocarbons characterized by a single or multiple ring structure containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Common aromatics which boil in the gasoline range (benzene, toluene, and xylenes, in particular) have a very high octane rating. Reformers produce high octane blend-stock by making aromatics. The "A" in PONA and N+A stands for aromatics. 
ARPA  Automatic Radar Plotting Aid 
Arrival Notice  A notification by carrier of ship’s arrival to the consignee, the “Notify Party,” and – when applicable – the “Also Notify Party.” These parties in interest are listed in blocks 3, 4 and 10, respectively, of the Bill of Lading. 
ARTD  After right and true delivery 
Articulated Tug Barge (ATB)  The articulated tug barge is a new state-of-the-art design aimed to increase efficiency and safety in ocean towing by eliminating the long towline. Instead, the tugboat fits into a notch designed into the stern of the barge and the two units are tightly connected. This allows for more control in steering the barge. ATBs are often mistaken for tank ships by the casual observer. 
AS  Annual Survey 
As the Crow Flies  When lost or unsure of their position in coastal waters, ships would release a caged crow. The crow would fly straight towards the nearest land thus giving the vessel some sort of a navigational fix. The tallest lookout platform on a ship came to be know as the crow's nest. 
ASA  Always safely afloat 
ASAP  As soon as possible 
ASBA  Association of Shipbrokers and Agents 
ASC X12  American Standards Committee X12 responsible for developing EDI standards for the United States. 
ASEAN  Association of south-east Asian Nations 
ASF  Asian Shipowners'' Forum 
ASG   Acetyls Sector Group. A sector group of the Association of Petrochemicals Producers in Europe (APPE). For more information, click here. 
Ash  Carbonaceous residue produced by burning crude oil and petroleum products. The industry tests fuels and other hydrocarbon mixtures in order to determine how much of this combustion by-product will form in ordinary use of its products. Refiners and others also use ash yield to deduce the presence of metallic soaps, abrasive solids, and other ash-causing contaminents in hydrocarbon mixtures. 
Asphalt  A mixture of heavy carbon-based compounds containing a high percentage of multiple-ring aromatics, many of them involving sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. Some folks use the word, asphalt, interchangeably with bitumen, the name of its characteristic constituent. 
Asphalt cement  A derivative, nearly or completely solid at room temperature, of certain crude oils. This black, tarry material usually comes from vacuum residue. It has several industrial applications. Pavers heat it to liquid form and mix in gravel to make road surface materials called blacktop, macadam, tarmac, or "asphalt". Builders use it to make and join bricks, to coat roofs, and to form shingles. It glues together various manufactured goods. 
Asphalt/Bitumen Tanker  A tanker for the bulk carriage of asphalt/bitumen at temperatures between 150 and 200 deg C 
Asphaltenes  Complex molecules which reveal their ring-structures by dissolving in aromatic liquids but not in paraffins. These compounds may influence the burning and blending characteristics of residual oils, if present in sufficient concentrations. They contribute to the high melting temperature and adhesion of bitumen and asphalt cement. 
ASPW  Any Safe Port in the World 
Assay  An elaborate laboratory report describing in detail the quality of grades of crude oil. The data presented includes, among other items, density, sulfur, naphthenicity, pour point, viscosity, distillation, and information on the quality of individual fractions. They tell a refiner what products he can make from a specific crude. 
Assignment  A term commonly used in connection with a bill of lading. It involves the transfer of rights, title and interest in order to assign goods by endorsing the bill of lading. 
Associated gases  Associated gas is an emulsion produced from saturated crude oil. 
Astern  – Behind a vessel
– Move in a reverse direction. 
ASTM  American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization which determines and publishes consensus standards of suitability and quality for a wide variety of materials including petroleum and refined products. ASTM develops and endorses methods of testing hydrocarbons properties as well as definitive specifications for such classes of refined product as fuel oils, aviation kerosene, burning kerosene, and motor gasoline. 
At Loggerheads  An iron ball attached to a long handle was a loggerhead. When heated it was used to seal the pitch in deck seams. It was sometimes a handy weapon for quarrelling crewmen. 
ATA  Actual Time of arrival 
ATC  Actual time counting 
ATD  Actual time of departure 
ATDN  Any Time Day or Night 
ATDNSHINC  Any Time Day or Night Sundays and Holidays Included 
ATDON  At day or night 
Athwartships  A direction across the width of a vessel. 
ATL  Atlantic Ocean 
Atmos  Abbreviation of atmospheric-pressure distillation, as in atmos bottoms and atmos gasoil. 
Atmospheric corrosion  Corrosion with the earth's atmosphere at ambient temperature as the corrosive environment 
Atmospheric corrosion test  Field trials in the atmosphere 
Atmospheric distillation  A technique for separating hydrocarbon mixtures which uses distillation apparatus operated at atmospheric pressure. Generally, the industry specifies ambient pressure to distinguish products of crude distillers, atmospheric fractions, from the products of vacuum flashers which, as the name implies distill atmospheric residue in a partial vacuum. 
Atmospheric gasoil  The heaviest product boiled by a crude distillation unit operating at atmospheric pressure. This fraction ordinarily sells as distillate fuel oil, either in pure form or blended with cracked stocks. In blends atmospheric gasoil, often abbreviated AGO, usually serves as the premium quality component used to lift lesser streams to the standards of saleable furnace oil or diesel engine fuel. Certain ethylene plants, called heavy oil crackers, can take AGO as feedstock. 
Atmospheric residue  The portion of crude oil taken as a bottoms product in a crude distillation unit which operates at atmospheric pressure under several other names apply to this product including atmos (atmospheric) reside, atmos bottoms, atmospheric fuel oil long reside, straight-run heavy fuel oil and topped crude. 
ATN  Aids to Navigation 
Atom  The smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles, and also the smallest unit of matter that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes. Hence the atom is the basic building block of chemistry. Atoms, also called chemical elements, can combine with one another to form compounds. 
ATRS  American Tank Rate Schedule 
ATS  Actual Time Saved or All time saved 
ATSB or ATSBE  All time saved both ends 
ATSDO  All time saved discharging only 
Attack Vessel, Naval  A combat vessel which is designed for high speed with a limited weaponry for rapid attack manoeuvres 
ATUTC  Actual Times Used to Count 
Auditing  The process carried out to assess the operating standards of a company or a business and the degree of compliance. 
AUSSIE  Australia 
Auto Oil programme  A technical work programme launched in 1992 by the European Commission and in which the European automobile and oil industries participated. The aim of this programme was to assess the most cost-effective measures for reducing emissions from the road transport sector to a level consistent with the EU air quality standards. Several petrochemical sectors have been involved in this process. Some measures have already been implemented; a further set of restrictions will be implemented by 2005.  
Automated Identification System (AIS)  It is a system used by ships and Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) principally for the identification and the locating of vessels. AIS provides a means for ships to electronically exchange ship data including: identification, position, course, and speed, with other nearby ships and VTS stations. 
AUX  Auxiliary 
AV  Ad valorem 
Availability  A quantity of crude or product a supplier could sell 
AVCAT  Aviation Category 
Average  See Insurance. 
AVGAS  Aviation Gasoline 
Aviation gasoline  High-grade motor fuel blended to meet the requirements of piston-type aero plane engines. This specialty product differs in all critical respects from aviation turbine fuel (jet). 
Aviation turbine fuel (ATF)  The fuel burned by aero planes jet engines. Civilian aircrafts consumes a kerosene-range product variously known as jet kero, jet A-1, avtur, DERD-2494, and JP1. Warplanes needed special fuels. Two military grades, JP-4 and JP-5 fall within the common notion of AFT. 
Avoirdupois Pound  Same as 0.4535924277 kilograms. 
AWB  Air waybill : Shipping document specifying terms for the courier and instructions for the airline. 
AWES  Association of Western European Shipbuilders 
AWH  Available workable hatches 
AWIWL  Always Within Institute Warranty Limits 
AWRI  Additional War Risk Insurance 
AWTSBE  All working time saved both ends 
AWTSDO  All working time saved discharging only 
AWTSLO  All working time saved loading only 
AWWL  Always within Institute Warranties Limits (Insurance purpose).